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everything she said.

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Elizabeth Page- Gould

Lecture 8 Person Perception sleep deprivation: we don’t notice, brain works overtime to see that you’re not. Sleep goes a long way BEHAVIOURAL INPUT -Verbal Behaviour speaking -Nonverbal Behaviour Emblems: also language, but nonverbal. Gestures that have well-understood meaning within a culture. Different gestures means different things in different cultures. Eg, ok sign, peace sign. Emblems communicates a language. Peace sign in north America is okay, but is offensive in Britain. Power of Behavioural Input: “Thin Slices.” Approach within social psychology focused on the attributional power of brief exposure to others. How we perceive somebody with a very short duration of exposure. How quickly can you detect someone’s socioeconomic status (SES) during a social interaction? -basically your income and education level -method (Kraus & Keltner (2009)): recorded people having social interaction. Took 30 second segments from these social interactions and showed to a subsequent set of participants to see how much they can determine about someone’s SES. -Results: Naive observers accurately detected parents’ income, mothers’ education, and subjective SES Relative to high SES participants, low SES participants spent less time: Grooming, doodling, manipulating objects CONTEXT -Context matters Provides additional input for a particular behavior when we try to understand people Can completely change attribution Schemas: what you expect is what you get. Important to social interaction. When you see somebody, you create a schema and expect what that person is going to do. ATTRIBUTION: Explanation for an observed behaviour of another social object. -if I see a behavior, to what factor am I going to attribute it to. We see a behavior, it can be caused by a person or the environment or the situation they’re in. How Automatic is Attribution? -Attribution Theory Internal/External Attributions Fundamental (?) Attribution Error Covariation Theory EASE OF ATTRIBUTION (Heider & Simmel (1944)) -we can attribute behaviors with minimal information -attribution automatic -we like to see patterns even when it doesn’t exist; pattern matching=attribution ATTRIBUTION THEORY -Primary Question: Do we attribute behaviour to something about the person (“internal”) or something about the situation (“external”) factor that had influence the person? INTERNAL ATTRIBUTION -Attributing a person’s behaviour to something intrinsic to that person Personality, disposition, attitude, or character -talking about who I think the person is. The person was the cause of this behavior EXTERNAL ATTRIBUTION -Attributing a person’s behaviour to something about the situation in which the behaviour occurred Specifically not changing beliefs regarding person’s character or personality -you’re not changing your belief of who the person is FUNDAMENTAL ATTRIBUTION ERROR, old and respected theory -AKA, “FAE” -When perceiving others: Tendency to overestimate the influence of internal causes for behaviour and underestimate external causes -When perceiving self: Much more likely to attribute own behaviour to external causes Jones & Harris (1967) -brought people into lab. Told they were supposed to write an essay about pro-castro or anti-castro. Then participants read one of two essays. Been told that half of people wrote anti-castro essay and some had wrote a pro-castro essay. Some was assigned or some chose. -how much do we think this essay writer favored castro Graph: y-axis, high number=pro-castro -when told that essay writer had a choice in choosing their essay PERCEPTUAL SALIENCE: Tendency to overestimate the causal role of information that grabs our attention TWO-STEP PROCESS OF ATTRIBUTION -Same process as Anchoring & Adjustment Heuristic 1. Make an internal attribution 2. Attempt to adjust away from internal attribution by considering situational constraints HOW FUNDAMENTAL IS THE FAE? -Gang Lu Recent Physics Ph.D. from University of Iowa On 1991/11/01, he killed 4 faculty, 1 Ph.D. Student, and paralysed a student Researcher -he expected that he should’ve won the dissertation award, but that went to the Ph. D student he had just killed. He was angry about it. -Morris & Peng (1994) Method: Analysed Chinese- and English-language newspaper articles written about Gang Lu Results: English newspapers attributed it to internal attributions, while Chinese newpapers were significantly lower -there was a similar situation that happened in Beijing where a man had killed a bunch of people, Kai Ping Peng’s wife was best friends with the former fiancé of the murderer. He went the next day to work and he told Dick Nisbit, his advisor at the time, what had happened. His boss said that Peng must
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