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PSYB10 Lecture 1.docx

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PSYB10 Lecture 1 (May 8, 2012) Readings – CH.1 -3 - What is social psychology? - By Gordon Allport - Uses scientific methods “to understand and explain how the thought, feeling and behaviour of individuals are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of other human beings (or others – not just humans).” - E.g. having a dog around you can lessen sadness or the way you feel during a stressful situation - ABC’s of Social Psychology AFFECT – Emotions, feelings and mood (something that you feel) BEHAVIOUR – Verbal and nonverbal action COGNITION – Thought, sensation, perception, processing and memory - What you expect is what you usually get - Affect, behaviour and cognition is made social when they are influenced by others (simply thinking about your mom before going to a party may affect you to behave more reserved) - We are not the only social animals e.g. Piscean Monkeys (enjoy cucumbers and love grapes) - Equity test – both monkeys Exchanges tokens for cucumbers - Inequity test – Monkey A gets a cucumber for an exchange of a token while Monkey B gets a grape for an exchange of token. Monkey B is extremely disappointed and throws away the cucumber and refuses to continue the token exchange (unfair) - When we see an emotion in others, we tend to mimic it History of Social Psych - William James – Philosopher “The community stagnates without the impulse of the individual. The impulse dies away without the sympathy of the community” - Wundt – first experimental lab – turned us into scientists from philosophers - The first experiment in psych was done by Tripplet - Social Facilitation Performance affected by presence of others - Observed bikers and found that the presence of others enhances performance, bikers would ride faster in packs of people (however, presence can also hurt your performance) - Kurt Lewin – studies social interaction – especially perception and cognition (how we think about people) - All people can see is your actions not your intentions (the behaviour they give to you) - World War 2 – Govt began to invest social psych research and funded to study effective War Bonds Ads (e.g. Fear) - Post War – Milligram Experiment - Each participant took the role of a "teacher" who would then deliver a shock to the "student" every time an incorrect answer was produced. While the participant believed that he was delivering real shocks to the student, the student was actually a confederate in the experiment who was simply pretending to be shocked. - Cultural events – can change Affect, behaviour and cognition, social psy in particular is propelled by cultural events - Murder of Kitty Genovese – March 13, 1964 (bar manager who was murdered after her shift, the brutal attack took place for 40 minutes and 39 people witnessed the attack and none of them intervened or called for help “bystander apathy”) - Jonestown Mass Suicide – November 18, 1978 -907 people poisoned themselves (or were poisoned by their parents) after killing the senator of the United States Social Psych tool kit - Self-report/surveys – pencil/paper surveys, computer survey and interviews (you can choose to answer the way you do and there is variance) - Reaction time tasks - computers, stop watches, video/audio - Priming – showing an emotion may activate a certain or another emotion (done sublimely – depends on the stimuli and explicitly) - Nonverbal/verbal behaviour – video cameras, audio recording, close observation - Neuroscience and Psychophysiology – spot and band elecrotodes, temperature and saliva (e.g. cardio-vascular functioning) Research Methods - 1 scientific systematic systems, focuses on vision and optics – light bounces off objects and that how we see the object – this began the basis of scientific method - Hypothetico-deductive method 1. Examine past knowledge and research 2. Form a theory 3. Operationalize the theory into a hypothesis 4. Test hypothesis - Variable types Dependent Variable DV– Outcome- what you’re trying to predict Independent Variable IV – Predictor - Cause – what you think predicts the outcome - The independent variable only implies causation when the independent variable in manipulated which means the experimenters changes something about the environment, so when the experimenter doesn’t change anything there is no causation or causal relationship - Correlational design – you have Two Dependent Variables – measuring 2 things in the environment and how much they co-vary with one other, there is NO experimental manipulation or hypothesis that one thing is predicting another - Correlational designs require random sampling to generalize better - Statistical Analysis – Correlation, Regression or Bayesian techniques - Proper interpretation – co-variance and prediction and No causality - Quasi-experimental Designs – subset of a correlational design - Have a specific hypothesis of what is the outcome and what the predictor is - IV is not manipulated – ethnicity, gender, race etc - Requires Stratified random sampling - Comes from developmental psych – comparing children of different age groups – - Interpretation – covariance and prediction - Experimental Designs – Manipulated, random assignment, comparison/control group - Eg. Effects of ecstasy – hypothesis – ecstasy makes you feel more connected to people, better soicla connections etc. - Showed different facial emotions and simply asks which emotion is this person experiencing - Experimenter found no difference between participants who are given NDMA or Placebo in detecting emotions accurately
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