Class Notes (839,340)
Canada (511,281)
Psychology (7,818)
PSYB10H3 (544)
Lecture

arora

7 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB10H3
Professor
Professor Page

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June 23, 2012 Lecture 7 – Initial Attraction and Close Relationships - Propinquity effect (Proximity) – the more we see and interact with other people, the more likely we are to become our friends – - Occurs through the process of familiarity - Mere exposure – the more exposure you get to a neutral object, the more you will like it, does not apply if the object has negative qualities - more GENERAL than proximity - If your exposed to something you don’t like, you dislike it more as your exposed to it - MIT Dorm Study (1950) – married graduate student dorms - the location of your apartment predicted who you became friends with - You were much likely to be friends with your next door neighbor – 41%, 2 doors apartnd 22%, opposite hallways – 10% and apartments 1 and 5 had more friends from 2 floor - We like things that are familiar to us – things/people we see often - Moreland and Beach (1992) – method – confederate sits in front row of class for 0-15 classes, at the end of the semester, students rate liking of confederate - Results – the more that they see him, the more directed they were to say they liked him - Mere exposure of your own faces – we tend to prefer our mirror image way more than a photograph image whereas friends prefer photography image - This is because we are used to seeing ourselves in the mirror where as when friends see us they see us like photographs - Why does proximity promote attraction? 1. Availability/accessibility – the number times you see someone and think of 2. Because it suggests similarity – we like people who are like us (similar to us) 3. Mere exposure - Complementarity (opposites attract) - Similarity (birds of a feather flock together) - Research supports the idea that similarity promotes liking - Study (Newcob, 1961) – method – randomly assigned 1 year college roommates, measured all sorts of personality traits, attitudes, etc and then looked at friendship formation after first year - Traits of dominance and submissiveness tend to be better in relationships than both partners being dominate or submissive – thus in this cases opposite attract - The study however showed that similarity wins, and was a better predictor of friendship formation Reciprocal liking - We don’t like to admit we like someone because we want to make sure the opposite person feels the same before admitting it - We like people better if they like us - Basic cues of liking in a social interaction – if people are making a lot of eye contact (is a individual difference, some people are nervous thus they constantly look away), leaning in (behavioral cue) and attentive listening (social capital) - If people begin to mimic others, that means you may like them - Less true for people with low esteem/negative self concept - Reciprocity – we like who like us - Study (Curtis and Miller, 1986) – method randomly pair participants, tell one participant that their partner either does or does not like them, partner and participant interact and post interaction liking is measured 1 - People who were told that their partners did like them (before the interaction) they liked them too after the interaction vise versa - “Playing hard to get” – doesn’t actually work, it may work initially but not in the long run - Study Physical attractiveness’ and liking (Walter, 1996) – method – 752 freshmen met up at a blind date dance, assigned to random rate, who wanted to go on a date again? - Results – desire for second dare driven mainly by partners attractiveness, independent of raters attractiveness and no personality affects - What makes people attractive – features of the face that systemically get rated as attractive - Men – large eyes, strong cheekbones, large chin (dominance) and a big smile - Women – large eyes, small nose, prominent cheekbones and narrow cheeks, high eyebrows, large pupils and a big smile - Baby faced-ness – features – large eyes, rounder face and nose - Outcomes – more persuasive (sweet and innocent) , more trustworthy, evoke liking and care giving behaviours - Good health – facial symmetry - Sexual maturity – cheekbones - Dominance – square jaw - Submission and getting nurturing – baby-faced - Symmetry matters ( study Longlois and Roggman) – shown 2 faces, and one merged pic (composite pic) of the two faces - Strangely, composite (merged picture of two faces) is rated more attractive than individual - Composite faces will be more familiar and more prototypical - Composite faces are also more symmetrical - Composites of people are rated highly attractive are more attractive than composites of all attractiveness levels - Attractiveness and liking – babies stare at attractive faces longer - Cultures value and define attractiveness differently (e.g. Korean cultures – Rounder faces) Why does Beauty promote Attraction? - Beautiful is good schema – (Karen Dion) – argues the reason we like people that are beautiful because we have a bias in which we believe that beautiful people are actually good/better people - Tendency to associate attractiveness with goodness(related to what my culture thinks) - Attractive people are rated as more social, extraverted, popular, happy and friendly - Stereotypes across cultures : Traits in US, Canada, and Korea Trails only in US and Canada Traits only in Korea Sociable/likable Strong Sensitive Friendly/popular Dominant Generous Well adjusted Assertive Warm Intelligent Trustworthy Happy Empathic - Defining Beautiful or attractive traits differs culturally - Canada and US – more independent while in Korea, people are more collective, thinking of the group a whole 2 Matching Hypothesis - We seek partners that are of similar attractiveness to us, and are more satisfied with these partners - Evidence for matching hypotheses –couples of similar attractiveness were more likely to continue dating after a blind date - ULCA dating study – recruited dating partners and took a picture of each, other students rated each partners attractiveness , 6 months later researchers contacted dating partners to ask about their relationship - Results – similarity in attractiveness predicted – satisfaction in relationship, relationship longevity and lower break up rate at 6 month follow up Scarcity - Scarcity – if potential mates are not plentiful we may shift our standards of attractiveness - “Closing time” study – approached people in bars, people asked to judge attractiveness (photos), time until closing used as an independent variable - Attractiveness ratings of opposite gender targets increased as the evening progreses – By 12 AM the same people were saying the same people that they rated attraictve at 9 pm, were now more attractive at 12 am Close relationships - Biological bases of relationships – reproductive investment, polygamy and monogamy and human mating - Evolutionary fitness – potential to pass on genes, able to survive to mating years, and maximize the number of offspring that survive to their mating years - The mate (the female) invests the most time compare to men thus women tend to be more choosier - Sea horses – opposite, males invest more time - Choosey – bears the most reproductive cost, usually the female - Least reproductive costs – should want more partners, will be in competition fro mates more often and displays greater physical variation (features are more distinct) - Polygamy – several members of one gender mating with one individual - Polygyny – several females mate with one male (90% of mammals) - Polyandry – several males with one female - Monogamy – reproductive partnership based on a more or less permanent tie between partners (indistinguishable based on physical traits) - Biological basis of monogamy – co-occurrence of Oxytocin and Dopamine in nucleus Accumbens - Dopamine – Reward neurotransmitter - Oxytocin – Attachment hormone - In monogamous relationships – the Oxytocin is found in the nucleus Accumbens and is stimulated the presence of dopamine (“become addicted to our partners”) - All 5% of monogamous animals share this anatomical feature - Polygamous animals – no Oxytocin receptors - Homosexuality – reproductive partnership between the members of the same gender (and is widely displayed in animals) - Usually associated with disproportionate number of male and female mate 3 - Young adulthood – mating tends to toward polygamy - Mid 20s and onwards – mating tends towards monogamy - Some have argued this is a superior strategy Need to Belong - Fundamental human need – the need to belong, have good friends and relationships - Belonging is a basic human motivation - Sociometer theory – self esteem telling you how much your fitting in - Human survival – requires more than one person who work together – e.g. constructing a building - Human children are helpless for several years - Compared to those who are isolated from others, people with strong social networks are happier, healthier and have greater life satisfaction Social Isolation - Long term isolation is a form of official torture/punishment in every society - Social rejection is an unofficial way to enforce social rules in every society - Effects observed in other primates as well - Study (Harlows Rhesus Monkeys) – experiment performed in response to Freuds cupboard theory - Cupboard theory – love of primary caregiver is the result of providing the child with basic needs - Terror of caregiver loss is based on possibility of going unfed - Harlow thought caregivers are more than food providers - Rhesus monkeys experiment –“ In Harlow's classic experiment, two groups
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