Class Notes (839,340)
Canada (511,281)
Psychology (7,818)
PSYB10H3 (544)


7 Pages

Course Code
Professor Page

This preview shows pages 1 and half of page 2. Sign up to view the full 7 pages of the document.
June 23, 2012 Lecture 7 – Initial Attraction and Close Relationships - Propinquity effect (Proximity) – the more we see and interact with other people, the more likely we are to become our friends – - Occurs through the process of familiarity - Mere exposure – the more exposure you get to a neutral object, the more you will like it, does not apply if the object has negative qualities - more GENERAL than proximity - If your exposed to something you don’t like, you dislike it more as your exposed to it - MIT Dorm Study (1950) – married graduate student dorms - the location of your apartment predicted who you became friends with - You were much likely to be friends with your next door neighbor – 41%, 2 doors apartnd 22%, opposite hallways – 10% and apartments 1 and 5 had more friends from 2 floor - We like things that are familiar to us – things/people we see often - Moreland and Beach (1992) – method – confederate sits in front row of class for 0-15 classes, at the end of the semester, students rate liking of confederate - Results – the more that they see him, the more directed they were to say they liked him - Mere exposure of your own faces – we tend to prefer our mirror image way more than a photograph image whereas friends prefer photography image - This is because we are used to seeing ourselves in the mirror where as when friends see us they see us like photographs - Why does proximity promote attraction? 1. Availability/accessibility – the number times you see someone and think of 2. Because it suggests similarity – we like people who are like us (similar to us) 3. Mere exposure - Complementarity (opposites attract) - Similarity (birds of a feather flock together) - Research supports the idea that similarity promotes liking - Study (Newcob, 1961) – method – randomly assigned 1 year college roommates, measured all sorts of personality traits, attitudes, etc and then looked at friendship formation after first year - Traits of dominance and submissiveness tend to be better in relationships than both partners being dominate or submissive – thus in this cases opposite attract - The study however showed that similarity wins, and was a better predictor of friendship formation Reciprocal liking - We don’t like to admit we like someone because we want to make sure the opposite person feels the same before admitting it - We like people better if they like us - Basic cues of liking in a social interaction – if people are making a lot of eye contact (is a individual difference, some people are nervous thus they constantly look away), leaning in (behavioral cue) and attentive listening (social capital) - If people begin to mimic others, that means you may like them - Less true for people with low esteem/negative self concept - Reciprocity – we like who like us - Study (Curtis and Miller, 1986) – method randomly pair participants, tell one participant that their partner either does or does not like them, partner and participant interact and post interaction liking is measured 1 - People who were told that their partners did like them (before the interaction) they liked them too after the interaction vise versa - “Playing hard to get” – doesn’t actually work, it may work initially but not in the long run - Study Physical attractiveness’ and liking (Walter, 1996) – method – 752 freshmen met up at a blind date dance, assigned to random rate, who wanted to go on a date again? - Results – desire for second dare driven mainly by partners attractiveness, independent of raters attractiveness and no personality affects - What makes people attractive – features of the face that systemically get rated as attractive - Men – large eyes, strong cheekbones, large chin (dominance) and a big smile - Women – large eyes, small nose, prominent cheekbones and narrow cheeks, high eyebrows, large pupils and a big smile - Baby faced-ness – features – large eyes, rounder face and nose - Outcomes – more persuasive (sweet and innocent) , more trustworthy, evoke liking and care giving behaviours - Good health – facial symmetry - Sexual maturity – cheekbones - Dominance – square jaw - Submission and getting nurturing – baby-faced - Symmetry matters ( study Longlois and Roggman) – shown 2 faces, and one merged pic (composite pic) of the two faces - Strangely, composite (merged picture of two faces) is rated more attractive than individual - Composite faces will be more familiar and more prototypical - Composite faces are also more symmetrical - Composites of people are rated highly attractive are more attractive than composites of all attractiveness levels - Attractiveness and liking – babies stare at attractive faces longer - Cultures value and define attractiveness differently (e.g. Korean cultures – Rounder faces) Why does Beauty promote Attraction? - Beautiful is good schema – (Karen Dion) – argues the reason we like people that are beautiful because we have a bias in which we believe that beautiful people are actually good/better people - Tendency to associate attractiveness with goodness(related to what my culture thinks) - Attractive people are rated as more social, extraverted, popular, happy and friendly - Stereotypes across cultures : Traits in US, Canada, and Korea Trails only in US and Canada Traits only in Korea Sociable/likable Strong Sensitive Friendly/popular Dominant Generous Well adjusted Assertive Warm Intelligent Trustworthy Happy Empathic - Defining Beautiful or attractive traits differs culturally - Canada and US – more independent while in Korea, people are more collective, thinking of the group a whole 2 Matching Hypothesis - We seek partners that are of similar attractiveness to us, and are more satisfied with these partners - Evidence for matching hypotheses –couples of similar attractiveness were more likely to continue dating after a blind date - ULCA dating study – recruited dating partners and took a picture of each, other students rated each partners attractiveness , 6 months later researchers contacted dating partners to ask about their relationship - Results – similarity in attractiveness predicted – satisfaction in relationship, relationship longevity and lower break up rate at 6 month follow up Scarcity - Scarcity – if potential mates are not plentiful we may shift our standards of attractiveness - “Closing time” study – approached people in bars, people asked to judge attractiveness (photos), time until closing used as an independent variable - Attractiveness ratings of opposite gender targets increased as the evening progreses – By 12 AM the same people were saying the same people that they rated attraictve at 9 pm, were now more attractive at 12 am Close relationships - Biological bases of relationships – reproductive investment, polygamy and monogamy and human mating - Evolutionary fitness – potential to pass on genes, able to survive to mating years, and maximize the number of offspring that survive to their mating years - The mate (the female) invests the most time compare to men thus women tend to be more choosier - Sea horses – opposite, males invest more time - Choosey – bears the most reproductive cost, usually the female - Least reproductive costs – should want more partners, will be in competition fro mates more often and displays greater physical variation (features are more distinct) - Polygamy – several members of one gender mating with one individual - Polygyny – several females mate with one male (90% of mammals) - Polyandry – several males with one female - Monogamy – reproductive partnership based on a more or less permanent tie between partners (indistinguishable based on physical traits) - Biological basis of monogamy – co-occurrence of Oxytocin and Dopamine in nucleus Accumbens - Dopamine – Reward neurotransmitter - Oxytocin – Attachment hormone - In monogamous relationships – the Oxytocin is found in the nucleus Accumbens and is stimulated the presence of dopamine (“become addicted to our partners”) - All 5% of monogamous animals share this anatomical feature - Polygamous animals – no Oxytocin receptors - Homosexuality – reproductive partnership between the members of the same gender (and is widely displayed in animals) - Usually associated with disproportionate number of male and female mate 3 - Young adulthood – mating tends to toward polygamy - Mid 20s and onwards – mating tends towards monogamy - Some have argued this is a superior strategy Need to Belong - Fundamental human need – the need to belong, have good friends and relationships - Belonging is a basic human motivation - Sociometer theory – self esteem telling you how much your fitting in - Human survival – requires more than one person who work together – e.g. constructing a building - Human children are helpless for several years - Compared to those who are isolated from others, people with strong social networks are happier, healthier and have greater life satisfaction Social Isolation - Long term isolation is a form of official torture/punishment in every society - Social rejection is an unofficial way to enforce social rules in every society - Effects observed in other primates as well - Study (Harlows Rhesus Monkeys) – experiment performed in response to Freuds cupboard theory - Cupboard theory – love of primary caregiver is the result of providing the child with basic needs - Terror of caregiver loss is based on possibility of going unfed - Harlow thought caregivers are more than food providers - Rhesus monkeys experiment –“ In Harlow's classic experiment, two groups
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1 and half of page 2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.