Class Notes (810,422)
Canada (494,121)
Psychology (7,623)
PSYB10H3 (543)

Lecture 1 Notes.docx

9 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Elizabeth Page- Gould

PSYB10- SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY  Uses scientific methods “to understand and explain how the thought, feeling and behaviour of individuals are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of *others+.” the presence of others ABC’s of social psychology - AFFECT: Emotions, feelings, and mood - BEHAVIOUR: verbal and non-verbal action - COGNITION: thought, sensation, perception, processing and memory - Other people don’t need to be directly interacting with you EX: when you have an altercation with another person a long time ago, and when u recall it your heart beats really fast, despite the fact that you experienced that event a long time ago. - Capuchin monkey study: likes grapes more than cucumbers, animals are focused moreso on rewards and punishments o Capuchin monkeys are able to understand the concept of fairness , and this is exemplified through the Bartering task o They teach the monkeys to do series of behaviours (ex: hand monkey the token, and the monkey gives the token back and gets food afterwards o Inequity test: both monkeys are performing the same task, they get the token except one monkey gets a grape back and the other gets a cucumber. The one that gets the cucumber gets upset, and goes to the side. o If both monkeys are getting cucumbers then the monkeys are excited about getting the cucumbers, will always exchange the token to get the grape. But when it later seems like a monkey is getting more for receiving the same amount, then that’s when the monkey refuses to play the game o Humans play this game, and its called the ultimatum game: give two people ten loonies , if you make an offer and the person playing says yes , then both the people get the money but if one person refuses then nobody gets the money. So if you get offered one dollar and your partner gets nine, it makes the person reject the deal altogether, because we’d rather get no money than suffer from an unfair deal.  From an Economics point of view, we really believed that humans were logical (rational) because we would think that humans would accept the one dollar , but in a broad viewpoint, rejecting the dollar occurs because we don’t want to maintain an ongoing relationship with the person .  Another example of a social process is that when someone smiles , we tend to smile back out of a natural reaction , and its also a social convention that we tend to abide by - “Know” the people with whom you are dealing - • Acting professional opens doors - - • Get what you want when you’re upset - Research the people that you need to work with - Address people accordingly - Engage people at the level of their skills, ability, and training - People discount your argument when you get emotional , people don’t view those reasons as purely logical even if they are real - Assume benign intentions unless stated otherwise HISTORY OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY - Late 1800s William James in the department of philosophy, was a philosopher of mind, - Made theories of how our mind works. He was starting to move towards scientific approaches - Wundt experimental psychology lab in Germany - The quote emphasizes the reciprocal process that we have with other people, social isolation can be extremely damaging. We need the individual in the group, and we also need the group in order to keep yourself going - SOCIAL FACILITATION o Performance was affected by the presence of others. Bicyclers would always have slower times when they trained by themselves , than when they trained with other members of their team. o Sometimes being in the presence of others improves performance. Sometimes being in the presence of others makes you perform much worse. - KURT LEWIN father of social psychology - Perception and cognition: how we perceive and think about others - Dyadic interactionism theory of the process that occurs within interaction - Government became interested in social processes after WW2 - Persuasion, and propaganda, how to get people to think the way we want to think, buy war bonds against the access powers. - The government began funding the people who were doing the research regarding how to persuade people through advertisements. - Uses fear to scare people to buying the bonds (women with baby and the claws are going to harm them) if you portray a fearful message, and then you provide a solution to that fear, then it’s a very persuasive message - Selling fear and racism to get people to buy bonds - WORLD WAR II shook the world , because of how an entire culture of people revolt against social norms - Social psychology is driven by cultural events, wanted to figure out how Nazi germany happened. - Do you have to be a bad person in order to do bad things? No - Kitty Genovese murder, was attacked and brutally murdered. She was stabbed many times, the attack went on , went on for about 40 minutes. Thirty nine people directly witnessed the crime, but nobody called the police. - The witnesses claimed that because so many people were witnessing the event, that they assumed another person reported the event - Jonestown mass suicide: Jim Jone’s peoples temple, got all these people to move down to Guyana, and close to 900 people were living there, they attacked this senator and killed him, the later decided to kill themselves - 907 people poisoned themselves ( or were poisoned by their parents) - Methods used in social psychology - Self reports/survey methods o Pencil and paper o Computer survey o Interview - Reaction time tasks o Obtained by : computers, stop watches, video/audio o Reaction times are supposed to capture the speed of thought and processing. - PRIMING o Subliminally  expose the person to a stimulus (subliminal, you don’t know you have seen it) by activating certain concepts in the mind, related concepts are more likely to be activated. o When you show people an image of a women screaming , and present you with another person . By priming you with fear, you can see how fear affects the way you interpret other people. o Nonverbal/verbal behavior: video cameras, audio recordings, close observation NEUROSCIENCE - Wearing an EEG cap , which enables us to capture the electrical activity on the surface of the scalp, - Functional MRI (fMRI)  looking at specific areas of the brain - Brain damaged patients / lesion patients  damaged medial prefrontal cortex less able to regulate your behavior PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY - Obtained by spot and band electrodes. Measuring electrical activity of the heart, respiration, blood flow, which play into your ability to perform and do well - Temperature sensors - Plethysmographs - Saliva SCIENTIFIC METHOD - Hypothetico-deductive Method 1. Examine past knowledge/ research 2. Form a theory 3. Operationalize the theory into a hypothesis 4. Test hypothesis 5. Revise theory VARIABLE TYPES - Dependent Variable= DV o Outcome - Independent variable = IV o Predictor o Only implies causation when its manipulated - CORRELATIONAL DESIGN’s consist of o 2 DV’s o No experimental manipulation o Random sampling o Ice cream sales are positively correlated with drowning deaths. Both ice cream sales and swimming drastically occur in the summer time, so they co – occur and NOT CORRELATE - CORRELATIONAL DESIGNS o Statistical analysis  Correlation, regression or Bayesian  Proper interpretation  Covariance and prediction  No causality - EX: stuffy nose example, you don’t assume that the stuffy nose caused the cold but you can predict that the person has a cold as a function of the stuffy nose QUASI EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN - Key features: - A defined predictor and outcome - IV is not manipulated o Known groups IV (e.g . sex, ethnicity, nationality) o Stratified random sampling getting enough people of each group o Comparison / control group - Theory of Mind o 3-4  kids develop theory of mind, and until that point , humans don’t realize that each humans have a separate brain and mind. Little kids are unable to understand that you cannot read their minds, so they believe that what they think is essentially what you think too. Child will believe to think that we all share the same thoughts. So if a new person walks into the room, the child will believe that the person will know that the box is filled with pencils and NOT m&m’s. This is because the child thinks that adults are able to perceive their thoughts. But by age 4- 5, the child will understand that the new person will think that there is m&m’s in the box and not pencils. The person doesn’t have access to their thoughts. - Statistical Analysis o Correlation, regression, ANOVA, or Bayesian o We cant directly say that the age is what caused the theory of mind o Can discuss differences between the groups but you cant say that the group membership caused those differences. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS - Key Features o Manipulated IV(s), experimenter assigns people to be exposed to one experience or another o Random assignment to condition o Comparison / control group - EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN EXAMPLE: Mathew Baggot, was really interested in the role of MDMA which is known as ecstasy , and how it affects our perception of emotions - There is a belief that ecstasy affects our emotions and interactions with others, and makes us feel more connected to other people, empathic, - Brought people into the lab, and they had used the drug in the past, he randomly assigned them to get a placebo, a heart rate accelerant, or ecstasy itself. - The people participating, had an fMRI so that brain activity could be monitored , and they had to look at different images of people displaying emotions, and the people in the experiment had to say what emotions were being displayed - His hypothesis was that people who took MDMA, would have more accuracy in detecting the emotions of the images. BUT there were no differences in emotional empathic ability , but people who had taken ecstasy were MORE incorre
More Less

Related notes for PSYB10H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.