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Lecture 2

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB10H3
Professor
Elizabeth Page- Gould
Semester
Fall

Description
Psyb10 (Lecture 2 Notes) THE SELF AND SELF REGULATION:  At the highest level- the self is the concept of who you are, own identity which is unique form others= self  Feelings, observations, and thoughts- play important roles in determing who we actually are.  Becoming aware of urself, self awareness is awareness of ur self as being an distinct object,  The way we test ourselves = rouge test  MARK TEST = experimenter expose a child or animal infront of the mirror, when the child is not paying attentions, the experimenter- applies a mark on the child’s face (rouge – blush) test.,-- nd then yu see its you, or its somebody else with the mark on the face…  Orangutans- pass the mark test;  LEVELS OF SELF AWARENESS=  Minimal self = self being distinct from the environment,- when I touch sometinhg- I feel my hand on the table, but I don’t realize that the table is feeling me.  Objectified self= have the cognitive ability to reflect on urself, nd recognize that ppl can judge yu in a different way than yu, start to develop belief systems  Symbolis self = we are aware of who we are, language is involved, I can tell yu a story abt my life; humans have complex language- so only humans can do this INHERENTLY SOCIAL :  The quote by JAMES MARK BALDWIN  So much of what we do is comparative, when I tinhk abt myself, I think abt ppl who are close to me, when I think abt someone else I don’t really think abt “Them”, I think abt what they think of me! SELF CONCEPT:  Your concept of who you are,  Self is just a concept- ur idea of who yu are..; we really protect the self concept, by doing interesting things  What goes in to the self concept is basically what we tinhk abt ourselves  Think of myself- in the CENTER, nd associated with ii , wil be surrounded bym e  The self schema = how the self concept is organized in my mind  Is the cognintive representation of the self concept MEASURING THE SELF CONCEPT  Given statements starting with “I AM” ,nd fil in the rest later  Its called the TWENTY STATEMENTS TEST (TST)  Experimenters can quantify, it nd segregate it, taking the proportions of individual qualities, (I am messy) nd social roles (I am a parent)  Also interested in the COMPLEXITY AND DEPTH, of ur statements  If I said im an athlete, im a runner and fit = its kinda the same being an athletic person = one aspect of the self  However, if someone gave statemtns that were totally different = then u have a totally ddiverse self concept.  Can also measure it by the “IMPLICIT PERSONALTIY TEST” Im going to see a series of personality traits on the screen, n dim going to press the button if its see or not me  Faster the reactions, the more right the traits are, however some traits might not match, “cruel more quickely yu’ll be like “ HELL NO”, nd press the button no  101 colege students came in, 1 took the implicit personality test; they were fstusing on essesntially how independent how independt yu are…  1 divided ppl based on the personality test, rated them selves high = more indepeennee, less = more depenedtn  Aschematic = I really don’t care, nah whatever neither inde nor dependent  Ppl in the blue bar = fastest at responding = more indepent (3 bar grapghs on the left)  ^ bar grapgh  Not me graphs – the bar graphs on the right GLOBAL Vs CONTEXTUALIZED SELF:  How yu interact with ur parents is prolly different how yu r with ur frnz- it depends  They measure it like the TST (I AM ___)  A small twist = added a context, something like I AM ______ WHEN_______  I tend to be very organized when it comes to research, but when it comes to home, imm very disorganized  My organization skills is varied depending on the CONTEXT  My contextualized self concept is primed, so more different; either had ppl come into the lad and had the global text, nd then the contextualized test WORKING SELF-CONCEPT:  Self concept, self schema= is fomrthe semantic network  Working memeory is currently accessible!!! =  If I measure ur self schema, in the morning and evening its going to differ, cuz the experience that we went through from morning to evening can change; intereacting with different, ppl, -activate different traits in our personality  If I viewed my self as an honest person; ill be more likely to say that im honest right away when I take the personality test.  CONTEXTUALLY distinctive aspects = at school yu may be different nd at home yu may be different (different traits get activated at different times)  “CENTRAL” aspects of the self = are chronically accessible ; certain traits are more or less close to you. SELF- CONCEPT CENTRALITY:  Some aspects of the self- concept are more personally impt to you than others  Central trait = tinhk abt it a lot; associate it to urself very quickly; central to ur self concept ; chronically accessible  How do yu measure self – concept centrality : >? = basically yu get a paper, nd on it, will be a big circle, nd in the middle the word “me “ will appear; nd the experimenter will ask yu to right down the closely related; important, central traits in CLOSE to the word “ME”, nd the less important traits more further away from the word “ME”  Experimenters quantify the results ^ by measuring the origin of the circle using a ruler to the traits, separately, can also be done in the computer by calculated the pixals in distance, SELF- EVALUATIVE MAINTENANCE :  If someone close to you outperforms you in a particular domain ; then:  (a) you will be threatened if the domain is central to ur self concept  (b) you will be proud if the domain is not central to your self- concept  Ex- u and ur room mate both taking social psych, ur room mate got A+, ND YU GOT b+, SO WHAT DO YOU DO? SO IT all depends on how central is social psych is to yu , how important is it in ur future, (if ur just taking it as an elective  ur probably gona be like “pshhtt F that shit!, I don’t really care, if MY ROOM MATE GOT a+ , nor I do for myself with a B+, so whatever  However, if social psych (domain) tends to be central to u, that its necessary for ur future, then ur room mate would be like a threat to yu in competin with im later.  Way to maintain positive self- evaluation ^  It all comes down to “closeness” (everytime my friend wins- ill be more happy, doesn’t matter that I lost!) SELF- HANDICAPPING: (concept of centrality)  It’s a concept that you anticipate that your going to fail that’s really central nd important to yu  Ppl sometimes more or less engage in process that set them up to fail; so when you do fail its not yu who failed, -it’s the SITUATION  Case 1 : u studied hard, get lots of sleep; eat a healthy breakfast, nd take ur test nd get a C+ on it  Case 2: go to the bar, got drunk till 2:00am, sleep from 4 to 10, take the test nd get a C+ on it  ^case 2 always feel better, you hav ur own reasons – maybe if I didn’t get drunk I would have done better.. so whatever…  Classic study = 1989, got 100 college students brought them to a lab, nd took a test, how well they performed in the test really didn’t matter; BUT what did matter was that “how they described the test to the students  1. Diagnostic condition(D.C) = this TEST predicts your future success  2. Invalid condition (I.C) = this test is NOT predictive of future success (doesn’t matter)  Different kinds of music provided, nd check how it affects ur ability to do well in the tests.  5 casette tapes, yu can choose, while taking ur tests; the tapes were marked (double green tape_ will make u perform better than the double red tape, will make yu perform WORSE)  Question is = which tapes did ppl choose?, yu would think that everyone would choose the double green tape  Results = value of 1 was given to the double green tape, value of 5 given to double red tape  D.C = students automatically chose the red tape, so atleast it wont hurt as bad if they didn’t do well choosing the green tape, (refer TO BOOK)  But logically u would think that they would choose the double green tape that would facilitate the performance, but no, they didn’t. SELF – VERIFICATION (consequences of self- concept centrality):  “the need to seek confirmation of one’s self- concept”  Motivated by desire to be understood  Holds true, even if self- concept is negative, but only for traits that are central to the self- concept  Ex = as I am really dis-organized around my house, which means that I would want my husband to understand that, so he wouldn’t be shocked abt it, nd he would adjust to that trait of me being dis- orgainsed.  Essentially- for those who are close to us, nd the traits that are close to us, (even if they are negative traits)- yu want them to knw that beforehand (verify)  Classic study (mid 1990’s) = depression involves negative view of self, world and future and these negative views are chronically accessible (we are going to be relying on ppl who are, nd are not depressed)  Nd ppl who are depressed, when yu rely on them, u are going to be motivated to view ur self more negative  Gave everybody pencil and paper; took ppl who were in the lowest ranges in depression nd highest ranges in depression. Yello = not depressed, blue = depressed  Firstly, everyone took a personality test  After, the participants were told that ur tests will be evaluated by 2 experienced grad students,  2 preview assessements will be provided 1 preview = this person who evaluated my test is awesome!, very positive feedbacks, etc nd  However, 2 preview = this person stinks,inconsistent , negative evaluation (stresses more on the negative traits)  Mostly yu would choose the 1 person  Results = assuming non depressed ppl wanted positive feedbacks, nd  A quarter (0.25)of the students who were not depressed wanted to meet the 2 grad student who would evaluate them very poorly (blue bar on graph)  Ppl who were depressed ; 80% of the time wanted to meet the 2 ndguy, who evaluated them poorly ; motivated to see the negative side of them than the positive.  KEY = if this concept is central to who you think you are; or this trait, then you want other ppl to see you that way, nd ur strongly motivated to see you that way  im so dis-organized ; ur husband will try to be ok with it, by adjusting a little bit. MULTIPLE SELVES :  how many selves do we really have  do we have just one view of the self ? = NO.  How many selves in the self? ^Hazel Markus = 1. Independent & interdependent selves 2. possible selves (are not yet; but we could become)  (don’t have to memorize scientists names) ;)  Independent self = view of self as distinct from others (unique)  Interdependent self = self as inherently linked with others = includes other ppl in one’s view of self = im a prof, but I relaise that im an ACTUAL prof, only when students are around me, nd paying attention to me  Possible selves = the way we think abt our potential = “ type of self – knowledge that pertains to how we think abt our potential and our future  Ideal selves = who we want to become  Neutral selves = things that I really don’t care abt ; maybe I can live on kennedy road instead of eglintion ,whateverrr  Selves that we are afraid to become, (negative selves) SELF – DISCREPANCY THEORY :  1. Actual self (who u are now)  2. Ideal self (who u would ideally lik
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