Class Notes (835,028)
Canada (508,881)
Psychology (7,776)
PSYB10H3 (544)
Lecture 8

Lecture 8.docx

7 Pages
102 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB10H3
Professor
Elizabeth Page- Gould
Semester
Fall

Description
Lecture 8: Culture, Social Power & Hierarchy Defining Culture  What is culture? o An ever-changing, constructive stimulus which shapes the way individuals perceive and contribute to the world  Ever-changing: dynamic; your culture is not the same as your parents’ culture— culture changes all the time  Constructive: influenced by members of the culture; protests, artists—people can change culture  Shapes: influences members of the culture; how culture changes people o Nationality: the country you were born in o Ethnicity: your cultural heritage o Identification: shared identity of group members; how much you associate your heritage with yourself (your self-concept); some people are very strongly associated with their heritage, others are non-identified o Meaning system  Symbols, language, experiences—all shared among the members of the same culture  Metaphysics: beliefs about the world, universe, & existence—why we are here Describing cultures  Individualist cultures: emphasize personal achievement, even at the expense of others o Greater emphasis on competition (ex: Canada, Western Europe)  Collectivist cultures: emphasize social roles and collective responsibilities, even at the expense of the individual—you sacrifice yourself for the group o Greater emphasis on cooperation (ex: China, Korea, Latin America) o Opposite of individualism, but some cultures have both (Japan)  Political Climate o Political structure greatly constrains behaviour and cultural expression o Sometimes government change can extinguish culture  Religious Beliefs o Dominant religious beliefs characterize a culture’s moral reasoning and motivations  Religion also affects social roles and norms  Ecological Differences o Environmental context shapes the development and focus of a culture (ex: Inuit must survive in arctic, so they will make their norms, goals more different than someone living in the tropics) How Does Culture Affect Us?  Cognition/Perception o Cognitive mechanisms—how do we think?  The western assumption that talking is connected to thinking is not shared in the east (SEE STUDY) o Cognitive framing: the perceptual framework through which you view the world  Affects the attributions made for events  Another way that culture affects our cognition  Like a schema  A set of expectations about the world that you’re going to fit behaviour in more or less  Affects how you perceive the world (SEE STUDY) o Dialectical Thinking: a cognitive reasoning structure through which an individual interprets the environment  Linear thinkers: want there to be a set of criteria—evidence for something vs. another  Dialectical thinkers: analogical thinkers—use examples as proof  3 principles:  Change: everything is in flux/constantly changing  Contradiction: opposing propositions may both be true  Wholism: everything is interrelated/interdependent (why would 2 contradictory things be true?—probably b/c there’s some greater whole that explains both of them) (SEE STUDY)  Affect o Emotional complexity: the experience of many emotions at the same time, especially if those emotions are a mixture of positive and negative feelings o (SEE SLIDE)  Behaviour o Social norms & Social roles  Social norms are completely relative to cultural context  Punishment for violation of social norms varies by culture too  Importance of social roles varies by culture  East Asians list significantly more social roles in Twenty Statements Test Moving Between Cultures  Acculturation: successful integration of the heritage of two cultures o Adoption of new culture through incorporating value systems of both new and original cultures o Haven’t totally abandoned their previous culture but they’ve found a way that everything works together—most adaptive way to immigrate to a new country  Assimilation: complete adoption of a new culture o Adoption of a new culture and simultaneous rejection of original culture—more negative outcome  Bicultural Identity Integration (BII): Degree to which two cultural identities are integrated in to a super-ordinate bicultural identity (STUDY) o 2 key components b/w the two cultural identities:  Perceived Harmony vs. Conflict  Perceived Similarity vs. Distance Social Power & Hierarchy  Definitions o Social hierarchy: an implicit or explicit (very clear) rank order of individuals or groups with respect to a valued social dimension  How we rank people depends on what the group needs o Social power (Objective): an asymmetric control over valued resources in social relations  Based on resources, which belong to an actor/social object  Person’s ability to allocate resources to group gives them more power (money, food, shelter) o Power hierarchy: rank-ordering of individuals with respect to the amount of resources each controls  One type of social hierarchy o Social status (subjective): the extent to which an individual or group is respected or admired by others  Exists entirely in the eyes of others and is conferred by themstatus changes o Status hierarchy: a rank-ordering of individuals or groups according to the amount of respect accorded by others  Changes only as the amount of respect for a target individual or group changes  Another type of social hierarchy Types of social hierarchies  Formal Hierarchies: explicitly-set social roles that vary by rank order, with higher-ranking roles holding greater value o People move b/w roles, but the hierarchy exists apart from the individuals who fill a given role at a given time (ex: worker becomes a manager) o Signs of a formal hierarchy:  Job titles  Reporting structures: when having to report to someone means you are in a lower status hierarchy  Organizational charts o Sources of value in higher-ranked positions:  Control over resources (Power): when you move your way up in status, you have more control over resources  Deference from subordinates (Status): you wouldn’t tell off your boss, but you might tell off an employee in same status as you (deference) o Typically an assumption of legitimacy to the hierarchy exists: usually people believe that the person at high status deserved to get there  Informal Hierarchies: rank-ordering of individuals or groups that develops organically on at least one valued social dimension o No clearly-delineated social roles o Sources of value in higher-ranked positions:  Influence over group decisions (Power): everyone just goes along with what the higher-ranked pos
More Less

Related notes for PSYB10H3

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit