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Lecture 5

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Elizabeth Page- Gould

Lecture 5- Group Processes - Social Groups: Groups of people or objects with some form of interdependence between each other, level of interaction, shared reality Well defined social norms, tasks vary in how cohesive they are and the effects of how strong or weak they are depend on cohesiveness when you break social norms or deviate, you are punished or expelled from the social group social norms guide our behavior, you might belong to multiple groups whose norms conflicting from each other social norms are behaviors or expectations from group members. Social roles is a subgroup assigned to few people in social groups not all. These roles have a lot of power to see ourselves as individuals. Get Violation from the social roles get punishment from other group members -Philip Zumbardo- Stanford prison experiment -Group cohesiveness- degree to which group members are close knit to each other Social Facilitation & Social Loafing: How groups or presence of other people affect our performance. The presence of social loafing and facilitation depend on 3 factors: whether individually evaluated for performance How aroused you are (heart rate etc.) Complexity of the task itself -Social facilitation: tendency of performance to be improved when you do well learned or dominant behaviors in presence of other or inhibited when doing less practiced or difficult tasks in the presence of others -Social loafing: Tendency for people to perform worse on simple tasks and better on complex tasks if they are in a group and being individually evaluated -For example if people are singing/performing together- people tend to perform better because there is no individual evaluation. No evaluation apprehension. -When you have extreme evaluation, your body gets aroused and inhibits your performance -When individually evaluatedevaluation apprehensionphysically arousedstress Little stressperform good on simple task -No evaluation apprehensionrelaxation/no stressworse performance on simple tasks Relaxationperform better on complex tasks -Group Polarization- tendency to make decisions that are more extreme than the initial inclinations of their members. groups making riskier decisions/being more conservative than individual members would be  groups have both informational(turn to everybody else to test our own knowledge) and normative social influence GP is a minor effect and is more subtle extreme form of GPGroup think -Group Think- focusing more on maintaining a uniform perspective rather than on making the best decision Example: Challenger disaster During the decision making (predict GroupThink)- AntecedentsHighly cohesive, isolation, directive leader, high stress, non-structured decision-making procedures Symptoms (What’s going on during GroupThink)illusion of invulnerability, group is morally correct, out-group in stereotyped, self-censorship, pressure for conformity, illusion of unanimity(suppression of thoughts), Mindguards (people who speak up..) Consequencesincomplete survey of alternatives, failure to look at risk of favored alternatives, poor information search, no contingency plans Preventing GroupThink1)Assign someone the role of “devil’s advocate”-who question the members, diffuses illusion of unanimity and creates structured situations. Everyone should know he is an advocate. 2)Leader remains impartial(leader shouldn’t vote, or say which ideas they like). 3) seeking people outside the group.4) creating subgroups having their own decisions and then bring decisions together to the group. 5)Anonymous opinions from group members -Jury decision making- differs if they make unanimous decisions. When there is unanimity, groupthink gets amplified but lack of unanimity has negative outcomes too (in France many more guilty verdicts than US because majority decides on the verdict). 6 person juries convict more often than 12 person juries- more people involved more likely to have a dissenter in the group to stand up and speak out. Cascade effect: judgement of initial speakers shape successors, who do not disclose what they know or think -Deindividuation: state in which a person loses the sense of him or herself as an individual. Occurs in crowds, when physically anonymous, group chanting or stomping -Destructive Cults - a social group of great devotion to a person/ideal thing that employs unethical techniques of manipulation or control. Characteristics: Charismatic leaders who are self-appointed, leader is focus of veneration, group culture tends toward totalitarianism, 2 or more set of ethics (lower/higher hierarchy of rules and norms), presents itself as innovative and exclusive. Main goals are recruitment and fundraising Example: Jim jones & the people’s temple. Order of the solar temple(massive suicides, unique & fascinating) Lecture 6- Emotion -Emotion: A brief physiological and psychological response to an event that is felt subjectively and prepares a person for action 6 core emotions by Paul Ekman: fear, anger, disgust, sadness, happiness, surprise. Predominance of negative emotions (fear, anger, disgust, sadness). -evolutionary reason: negative emotions make us fit to survive (disgust makes you run away from snake), greater functionality to negative emotions. Complex emotions: not one of the 6 basic emotions. They are blends of basic emotions. Happiness+surprise=amusement. 2 classes of complex emotions: positive emotions & self-conscious emotions -Positive complex emotions: Gratitude (appreciation), contentment (satisfaction), amusement, desire (going towards rewarding stimulus, salivation), love (contested) -Self-conscious complex emotions: Pride (sense of satisfaction and happiness involving a self-reference), shame (all about “me” more likely to feel angry at the victim and less likely to apologize and not likely to admit/confess), guilt (other-directed, how you hurt someone else or regretful behavior, will try to repair the behavior, promise not to do in future), embarrassment (self-concept, respond to it with laughter, not always negative, blend of positive and negative) -Complex Definition of Emotion: “An emotion is a universal, functional reaction to an external stimulus event, temporarily integrating physiological, cognitive, phenomenological, and behavioural channels to facilitate a fitness-enhancing, environment-shaping response to a current situation.” emotions are short lived -Real Emotions: between 500 ms - 4 s -Fake emotions: 1- 10s -if the stimulus is presented repeatedly, emotion can persist -surprise is briefest, happiness, disgust and sadness is standard length, anger and fear last a little longer Not Emotions: -Moodgeneralized affected valence state, lasts and persists a while (few hours). Why it isn’t an emotion? Because there is not clear stimulus for mood, persist over time, doesn’t motivate behaviors (not always call for action), usually subjective (not observable physiologically) -Sentiments (wishing best for someone etc.)not emotion -by itself the level of physiological arousal doesn’t count as emotions but is an important aspect of emotion as a whole -Two Theories of EmotionsJames Lange Theory & Two-factor theory -Emotions in Peripheral nervous system: Most researchers require a peripheral physiological response to state that an emotion has occurred. Examples: Heart rate, skin conductance, pre-ejection period, finger temperature. You cannot still tell what emotion is being experienced by looking at physiological profile down the face (only facial expressions can tell). Most physiological occurs b/c body is maintaining homeostasis. Can’t look at someone’s physiology to conclude which emotion they are feelings but can say the degree of emotional response is stronger or not. -Emotions in Central nervous system: Limbic SystemAmygdala (fearful, rage, anger related stimulus is processed), thalamus (all emotions), hypothalamus (involved in laughter emotions), frontal cortex (Everything else). -James-Lange Theory of Emotion: Every emotion has a distinct pattern of physiological responses that underlies/characterizes it. 2 differences with two-factor theory: emotion is the result of our underlying physiological responses and that every emotion has a distinct physiological signature  Specific bodily (physio) response tells us what emotion we are feeling Perception of eventbodily expressionsubjective experience -facial responses are different from below the neck responses. Movement of facial muscles can tell us the emotion we are experiencing -this theory found reliable similar physiological profiles through manipulating facial expressions - the meaning of an event or our interpretation of the event can affect our emotional response to it -Key appraisals for eliciting emotion: self-relevance, goal congruence, blame and responsibility, certainty, coping ability Two-factor theory of emotion -physiological response should precede the emotion but the response doesn’t have to be specific it can be generalized the only thing that matters is the relative change from the base-line. Example heart racing when you see your long time ago friend -apply a label to the arousal based on the cognitive appraisal. -the arousal in general is simply a trigger to search for an explanation for the arousal and the explanation is purely cognitive or interpretation EventGeneral Arousal + AppraisalEmotion (my heart is racing pounding, something is happeningbears are dangerous. Im scared) -while James-Lange theory is saying that bears are scary that’s why it elicited a physiological response which made the man scared -Experiment on two-factor theory. People get heart race accelerating pills and those people expressed greater anger than others while those who were given placebo weren’t aroused and didn’t show anger -James Lange says specific emotions are distinct and real while 2-factor says specific emotions are an illusion of appraisal Behavioral Channels facial display, body posture, vocal tone, touch and action -across cultures people show same muscle movements related to emotional experience - Currogator Superciliirelated to negative affect in general because it involves movement of the brow - Orbicularis Oculi- round muscles around the eye. Together with zygomaticus major differentiates between real and fake smile. If you combine both it is a real smile otherwise it is fake - Zygomaticus Major- comes along the cheeks and pulls the lips apart. Involved in all smiles. Highly involved in positive affect as a whole. Good mood. - Levator Labii- muscles around the nose, blocks the nostrils. involved/activated uniquely in the expression of disgust Electromyography (EMG) captures subtle facial movements, best used for situations where facial movement is not visually detectable, obtrusive measurement technique Facial Action Coding System (FACS) codes overt facial expressions, numbers all facial muscle actions, classifies emotions as patterns of muscle actions that occur together. Ex: Anger: 4, 5, 7, 23 -Darwin- emotions are adaptations we have developed to survive in environment. he argued that emotions developed b/c they are most basic form of communication-continuity between species in terms of emotional experiences, universality among species in how emotions are expressed -Paul Ekman did studies with 3 different methods to identify which emotions are universal in cultures standard method: pictures of emotions and ask which emotion they are showing out of 6 choices dashiel method: participants are told a story and then shown an array of photos and asked which photo matches the best on the emotion posed method: you pose the emotion the protagonist of the story will be feeling -The photos from US and genuie from posed method were compared to see if there is universality in emotions -16% is chance for standard method and 33% for dashiel method -Dashiel method is the most accurate method to detect universality in emotions between cultures -Conclusion: prototypical expression of emotions are universally recognizable and producible but cultural display rules that apply (appropriate or not to express the emotions) b/c they affect the situations which they are relevant, relational context and intensity of expression is culturally bound -Ekman would say that the only difference b/w cultures and their display rules. But others might disagree for ex: Japanese expression of obligation –amai is happy feeling. German schadenfreude- pleasure derived from the misfortune of others. Bedouin hasham – pleasant feeling of humility. MORALITY -Social psychology doesn’t tell you what is morally right or wrong but tells you why we think something is right or wrong -Moralization: when you add a morality value judgment on something. For ex smoking is bad in public places (society puts preferences on moral judgments). Vegeteraniasim in Canada – we don’t necessarily say if it’s good or bad -How do we come to moral decisions? Utilitarian Reasoning: consider the outcome of the decision itself. (Okay to do something bad if the end is good) Deontological approach: base moral decision on harm to others, yourself or society as a whole (some means to get to an end which can never be justified-like killing someone) -Morality is focused/driven by affective emotional response- reasoning process influenced by emotions Feelings as information- when we make moral judgments we evaluate how we feel emotionally and based on that we make our moral judgment. This reduces the complexity to think as emotional response is already available at that time. Base moral decision on the emotion you are experience. It leads to making decisions quickly (availability heuristic), accuracy tradeoff with speed -Only 3 emotions that matter when making moral decisions moral triad- disgust, anger, contempt Disgustviolations of divinity, cleanliness, purity. A very old person having sex with a very young person Angerviolations of autonomy, individual rights, personal harm. Husband got drunk and hit his wife -Contemptviolations of community, social hierarchy, social system. -Social intuitionist Model- John Hyde 2 steps of moral reasoning: first you make moral judgment based on gut emotional reaction (based on affective response to the stimulus) second is after making decision you make a judgment if it is moral or not. we don’t reason through morality based on logic or set of criteria but just on our gut response -Logical Morality Cognition still has a say for example utilitarianism Neural correlates of utilitarian and deontological moral reasoning -Dual Process theory of Moral Judgment Emotional Process Utilitarian Process -All people show heightened activity in Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC) when making difficult moral decisions -People who ultimately choose utilitarian argument: Greater activation in dPFC > ACC while making the moral decision. They don’t show difference in ACC activity there is only change in activity in dPFC. -The more difficult the moral decision (both rational and emotional systems are involved)ACC activity Lecture 7- Initial Attraction & Close Relationships -Whey we like other people: proximity (propinquity)- the degree to which you interact with someone else. How physically close you are with someone is a strong predictor. MIT dorm study on proximity. Availability/accessibility, similarity & mere exposure familiarity- mere exposure effect: the more exposure you get to a neutral object the more you like it. ex: mere exposure to your mirror image Similarity- we like people who are similar to us. Complementarity- one person is more dominant other is submissive and they are opposites. Newcomb study: similarity predicted friendship formation Reciprocal liking- we like people who like us. Eye contact, leaning in, mimicry, attentive listening. Curtis and Miller study Attractiveness- regardless if you are attractive or not you want your partner to be attractive. Baby faced people are more attractive. Symmetry of face is strongly related to attractiveness. Composite faces rated more attractive than individuals b/c more familiar and more prototypical and more symmetrical and because it is a true process (we like average people). We are more attracted to beautiful people and perceive them as more socially competent, extraverted, sexual, popular, happy and friendly -Matching Hypothesis: you want to be paired with someone who is of equal attractiveness as you are. UCLA dating studies Scarcity- if potential mates are not plentiful, we may shift our standards of attractiveness Close Relationships -Evolutionary fitness: idea that you are fit in evolutionary sense to the extent that you have genes to be passed on.. -whichever sex has to make more reproductive investment are choosier -sex with least reproductive investment is less choosy and wants more partners. Show greater physical variation -polygamy- several members of one sex mate with one individual of another sex- Polygyny: several females mate with one male. Polyandry: several males mate with one female -Sexual dimorphism: pronounced difference in the size/appearance/bodily structures of the two sexes -Monogamy- reproductive partnership based on more or less permanent tie between partners. Hard to differentiate between species -Biological basis of monogamy- 5% mammals are monogamous. brain structure Co-occurrence of Oxytocin(attachment harmone, released at attachment events like orgasms etc. neuropeptide) and Dopamine(reward neurotransmitter) in Nucleus Accumbens -when dopamine is released we get attached to the people who reward us -in non-monogamous mammals there is only activation of dopamine -Are humans polygamous? Men bigger than women (sexual dimorphism), 85% cultures allows polygamy -Are humans monogamous? Co-occurence of Oxytocin & Dopamine in human brain, 99% want to settle down with 1 partner -some people argue that our sexual strategy changes over time. Young people date more people- polygamy. Mid 20s-onwards- mating turns to monogamysuperior strategy -Need to belong: hardwired need to believe that we belong or fit in. Motivation of belonging. Less likely to get killed, harmed if belonging to groups, connected to other people. Harlow’s monkeys -Motivation of belongingbelonging is a basic human motivation. Evolutionary advantageous because human children take a long time to go by its own- need to belong -Attachment Theory -why infants get attached to their caregivers and emotionally distressed at the loss of the caregiver -Imprinting-basic form of attachment occurs after birth- sensitive period Adult Attachment: romantic relationships are similar to caregiver-child relationships. 3 attachment styles Secure Attachment Style: find easy depending on others and having people depend on you, no fear of abandonment or getting close with others. 56%. Think other people are trustworthy and think love exists and lasts forever, like themselves and others, parents were responsive, reliable and caring. Majority of people are securely attached. Anxious-Ambivalent Attachment Style: experiences of love are preoccupying, crazy head over heels in love and use painful words, views of themselves and relationships, intense onset of relationship, difficulty finding true love, self-doubts, fall in love frequently and easily, feelings about caregivers are mixed. 19% Avoidant Attachment Style: difficult to depend on others or trust others, not comfortable being intimate and close to others. Fear of closeness, lack of trust, doubtful of true love and durability of love, tend to view themselves as positive, don’t need love to be happy, self-reliant. Opinions about caregivers as being cold/negative Attachment dimensions: Attachment avoidant and anxious attachment is continuous dimensions (low, high, varies). Low on avoidancelike other people and want to approach them. Low attachmentnot anxious about how things go in relationship, confident it will work out -Close Relationships -Abc’s of social relationships: -Cognitionself-expansion theory and interdependence theory self-expansion theory- inclusion of others in-selfThe experience of closeness is an associative overlap of our self-concept with our concept of a close other. Measure this my implicit personality test (identify which words relate to you). If your best friend’s trait pops up, the closer you feel to your friend the longer it takes you to say “not me” because you are related to them, feel them to be a part of you. People make more situational attributions to close others Interdependence theory-investment model commitment is the key dependent variable. You are more committed the more you define yourself as a function of the relation. Depends on how satisfied you are quality of alternatives (alternative partners) and the amount of resources and time invested in your relationship (the more you have put in the more likely you want to stay in). high satisfaction, low quality of alternatives and high amount of time invested in your relationship then you will be very committed to your relationmore spontaneous use of plural “WE.” -Theories of Love- Companionate and Passionate Love -Love is a contested emotion- doesn’t count as an emotion b/c it seems to last and is not a response to an event. However lust and desire maybe an emotion Companionate love- Feelings of intimacy and affection we feel when we care deeply for a person, but without sexual arousal or passion Passionate love- Feelings of intense longing for a person, usually accompanied by physiological arousal -Positive illusions in close relationships-idealization of close other and seeing them as more positive than they see themselves. Couples of maintain positive illusions (Rate their partners highly than they themselves) experience decreasing conflicts, increasing satisfaction, decreasing doubts and are more likely to be together -Co-operative dilemmas in close relationships: when do we tit for tat or accommodate. Focus on long ter relationship goals to just self-serving goals Why relationships dissolve- low equity, boredom, less interdependence, lack of positive illusions Causes of conflict: money, sex and kids 4 Horsemen of the Apocalypse- what behaviors predict divorcemore criticism, defensiveness, contempt, stonewalling Friendships dissolvepassive strategies Romantic relations dissolvedirect strategies, direct confrontation -fMRI scans show cortical activity in ACC (Associated with “distress signal” during physical Pain) and rvPFC (Associated with regulation and inhibition of felt Pain) during social rejection -DeWall, MacDonald studypeople were given Tylenol and placebo pills. Those who took tylenol reported less physical pain and less hurt feelings on days of social rejection than those who took placebo Lecture 8- Culture -An ever-changing1, constructive2 stimulus which shapes3 the way individuals perceive and contribute to the world value, systems and beliefs of people who represent the culture which changes all the time. Not only culture influences us but we shape culture as well. Stimulus Nationality, Ethnicity (different from race, ethnicity is more about their upbringing and values etc.), Identification -the more you are identified with your cultural heritage the more your behaviors are influenced by culture -most cultures have some form of metaphysical explanation (origin theory, religious story) which define their sense of purpose -qualitative/macro level definition of why cultures are differentiated from one another: individualism/collectivism indidualism/collectivism more play than any other within cultural psychall culture varies along a dimension of how much culture values individual autonomy & individual agency versus collectiveculture values if people look out for themselves or others? individualistic culture emphasizes personal achievement, greater emphases on competition colectivist culture emphases on cooperation -Japan is high on both individualism and collectivism both -Political structure of a society greatly shapes the behavior, roles and attitudes of the people from a particular culture and an individual political shift can grea
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