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Elizabeth Page- Gould

May 17, 2012 PSYB10 LECTURE 2: THE SELF AND SELF REGULATION Readings – CH.5 - The Self – an individual consciousness of one’s own identity - The self is the awareness of who you are - The self consists of your behaviours, thoughts and feelings - Self awareness – awareness of the self as an entity that is distinct (different) from others and the environment - Tested with the Mark Test (also called the Rouge Test) - The rouge test is a self-recognition test that identifies a human child's ability to recognize a reflection in a mirror as his or her own. Using rouge makeup, an experimenter surreptitiously places a dot on the nose and/or face of the child. The child is then placed in front of a mirror and their reactions are monitored; depending on the child's development, distinct categories of responses are demonstrated. - If the child touches his own face/nose (where the mark is placed) shows self recognition – passes the mark test - Passing the mark test – usually after the infant is 6 months, by 1 ½ the child is able to recognize the mark accurately Levels of Self - Minimal Self – Conscious experience of the self as distinct (separate ) from the environment - How do I know I exist? Double stimulation –if you rub your arm with your hands you feet both the rubbing on your hand that’s doing the rubbing and the arm that is receiving the rubbing - However you rub your hands near a podium, you only feel your hand against the podiums (not what the podium feels) – singular stimulation - Objectified Self – cognitive capacity to serve as the object of one’s own for others attention - The ability to think of yourself as an object to reflect on oneself and then others - Symbolic self (Narrative self) – ability to form an abstract mental representation of oneself through language (how my life changed, important events in my life etc) The Self Concept - The self concept of who you are  Everything you know about yourself  Includes qualities, identities, social roles, personality traits, values - Self Schema – cognitive representation of the self concept  The concepts/words in your semantic network that are associated with your sense of self  Guides processing of self related information - How do we measure the self concept?  Self report surveys – 20 statement test (most common)  The TST is a long-standing psychological and social psychological "test" for use in regards to one's "sense of self." In particular, it helps identify those self-desiginations which may be due more to our "roles" than who we really are or could be. 1. Physical description: I’m tall, have blue eyes...etc. 2. Social Roles: We are all social beings whose behavior is shaped to some extent by the roles we play. Such roles as student, housewife, or member of the football team not only help others to recognize us but also help us to know what is expected of us in various situations. 3. Personal Traits: These are a third dimension of our self-descriptions. “I’m impulsive...I’m generous...I tend to worry a lot”...etc. - Self complexity – the depth and complexity of yourself concept - Operartionalzied as the number of distinct aspects used to define the self concept - 1977 study by Markus –participants completed a reaction time task, where they were presented with personality traits and asked to hit a button labeled "Me" if the trait was self-descriptive and another button labeled "Not Me" if the trait was not self-descriptive. When participants classified a trait that they had previously said described themselves, they were faster to categorize the trait with the "Me" button than participants who had previously said the trait was only moderately descriptive. The faster response time of people who felt the trait was self- descriptive reflects an association of that trait with their self-schema. Focused on traits - independent/autonomous vs dependent/submissive. - Gave participants a list of adjectives and asked them to state “Me” or “Not Me” when the adjective described them - The experimenter found response times (on average) for independent traits – very quick to respond as “ME” - Aschematics (neutral) on the hand took a little bit more time to respond as “ME” - Dependent people took a lot longer than independent and aschematic responders - Global vs contextualized self – - Global – I am ____________ - Global self concept – things that always describe you ( I am always friendly) - Contextual – I am _____________ in this situation but I am _________ in another situation (I am very organized in my professional life, but disorganized in my personal life - Behaviour then may change according to situation - If you get college/uni students complete a contextual 20 statement test before going into a test or achievement domain, if they don’t perform well in that domain they don’t show as much of a drop in self esteem after performing poorly on the test - contextual 20 statement - who you are changes in different contexts ( we can become a different person depending on the situation and different people ) - Working self concept – a subset of yourself concept that is presently accessible (e.g. when you go into a lecture all the aspect of a “student” comes activated) - Central traits /chronically assessiable - Certain traits are always accessible – rigid part of who you really are - Self concept vs self schema - Self concept – who you are, how you define yourself, yourself identity (e.g. 20 test) - Self schmea – how we think the self schema is organized in your mind (knowledge representation) e.g. Not me or me test - Self concept centrality – some aspects of the self concept are more personally important to you than others - Measuring self concept – “Bulls eye test” - give people a piece of paper with a circle, it says “ME” in the middle of the circle, and write down 20 qualities of who you are. The closer the traits are to “ME” – the more important or crucial they are to your personality - Traits closer to the Me – central traits – most defining traits of you - Self evaluative maintaince – people tend to be threatened when someone close to them outperforms them in a domain that is central to the self concept but not for non-central traits - process or set of behaviours that depend on your central traits of how you will respond to situations - If a domain is central to the self concept  Distance self from relationship  Distance self from task domain - If domain is not central to self concept  Vicarious self esteem boost  Magnitude of self esteem boost proportional to closeness of relationship - Self handicapping – strategy to buffer the self from an anticipated failure or embarrassment by undermining one’s own performance - Study – Sheppard and Arkin – 100 college students, given a test – 50 of the students were told the test was predictive of future success, income and life satisfaction (Diagnostic condition) and the other half were told nothing was important about the test - While taking the test, participants were allowed to listen to music (cassettes given by experimenters) - Students were told that Past research has shown that the tapes with green stickers made you perform better compare to the red sticker cassettes - Green stickers on cassettes = better performance on the test - Red stickers on cassettes = worse performance - However, all the music was the same in all cassettes - Researchers wanted to know which tapes you would choose (with the information you have about past research ) - Results – strangely people in the diagnostic condition choose the red cassette (that would hurt their performance) - Why? Self handicapping – by choosing the tape that impairs your performance if you then get feedback (unemployed for life) – that is okay cause it was just the tape - Self verification – the need to seek confirmation of one’s self concept – motivated by the desire to be understood ( you want other people to know) - Holds true even if self concept is negative and central traits - Study – depression involves negative view of self, world, and future an these negative views are chronically accessible - Depressed individuals choose to be assessed by the negative evaluators Mutiple selves - We have multiple selves concepts - Hazel Markus – independent vs. interdependent selves and possible selves - Independent self – view of self as d
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