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PSYB10 - 1.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Elizabeth Page- Gould

PSYB10 – 1 Social Psychology: Use specific methods and explain how the thought, feeling and behaviour of individuals are influenced by the actual, imagined or implied presence of other human beings -Gordon Allport, 1985  not specifically delegated to humans, but we are the most advanced ABC of Social Psychology  Affect: Emotion, feelings and mood  Behaviour: Verbal and nonverbal action, speech is considered a form of behaviour (and behaviour serves as a catalyst for how others form a representation of you because anything someone knows about you can only come through behaviour), it is an observable  Cognition: thought, sensation, perception, processing and memory -how people think about others and organize that knowledge and apply it to new people they meet -talk about memories of personalities and experiences that help us interact in future situations  we do not need to directly interact or be in the presence to influence you, a seer imagination or implied presence is enough for a social process to occur  for the most part, we look to primates for similar behavioural traits  capuchin monkey like cucumber but likes grapes more = can be used as rewards  normally animal behaviour is seen to be very focused in terms of reward  capuchin monkey used a lot in social moral tasks  capuchin monkey was put through a bartering task  monkey really likes cucumber, but likes grapes more (used as relative rewards)  animals are much focused on reward and punishment – but it was determined that they can perceive fairness in the world  give monkey token, and monkey hands it back for a cucumber (equity test)  (inequity test) upon handing token back one monkey gets a grape and the other monkey gets a cucumber – the monkey with the cucumber would see that as unfairness in reward and eventually stop playing the exchange game  results of this bartering test showed that if both monkeys were getting a cucumber reward upon exchange the game was continued to play – if one monkey received a grape upon exchange, the other monkey would refuse to play the game – the highest refusal was seen when one monkey would receive grapes without exchanging tokens  similar thing seen in humans called the ‘ultimatum test’ -give one person 10 loonies and say that you have to split it amongst the other group members, and if that person agrees to that price then you get to keep rest of that amount, or else both of you get nothing -if the price offered was 1 loonie then almost always it was rejected, because they see the unfairness of the situation -important because from an economics point of view, believed that humans were rationale ($1 more than $0, so always take the $1), but that is not the case -errors in rationale that account of our intelligence and complexity (should not accept the $1 once because inequality will happen again)  contagion of emotions is important (if you see someone smiling then you will also smile) 1 PSYB10 – 1 HISTORY OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY  Aristotle, Machiavelli, Darwin – are all in some way social psychologists because they had elaborate theories about humanity THEORETICAL HISTORY  late 1800s William James, was a philosopher of mind – makes theories about how the make works – and had started to show a shift toward scientific aspect theorizing  Wundt: was the first the field “Experimental Psychology – based in Germany  we need the individual within the group, but you also need the group to keep yourself going (W James) Triplett (1898)  first social psychology experiment: social facilitation – performance affected by presence of others actual or imagined  cyclists who were racing that trained by themselves would having longer times than those who trained with other people  being in the presence of others may result in a better or worse performance, relative to yourself Kurt Lewin  father of social psychology  research interests: perception and cognition, Dyadic Interactionism World War II  government interest in social psychology and process  in particular persuasion and propaganda – how to get people to be on our side, buy war bonds  key social psychologists funded to study effective war bond ads – research shifts to where the money is  a lot of social psychology is driven by cultural events  how did Nazi Germany happen?  Milgram’s “Obedience to Authority” – do you have to be a bad person to do bad things because situations can be powerful determinants Cultural Events th  Murder of Kitty Genovese (March 13 1964)  she was a manger at a bar, walking back home and was attacked and murdered  the attack went on for 40min and was very loud, and it was later determined that 39 people witnessed the attack but no one called  did not call the police because they thought someone else had already done so (bystander apathy)  Jonestown Mass Suicide  Jim Jones got many people to move down to Guyana to join the cult, and convinced cult members to kill themselves th  907 people poisoned themselves and their family (November 18 1978)  trying to understand what process that make acts like these possible – systematic signs of bad cults 2 PSYB10 – 1 METHODS IN SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY  conclusions that one draws from studies do not always match the methods used in the study Self Report Surveys  obtained by pencil and paper, computer survey, interview  some people look down upon this methods, but the more you do them the more you realize that people’s responses differ greatly Reaction Time Tasks  obtained by computers, stopwatches, video, audio (usually measured in millisec)  useful in categorizing people and putting them into different groups according to schemas  supposed to record speech of thought and processing when you are subjected to certain stimuli Priming  used a lot as a experimental procedure by preexposure, subliminal or explicit priming  by activating a certain concept in your brain, other additional concepts will also be activated  showing of a screaming woman really quickly (priming) and show you a picture of another women see your reaction, then it gives insight how fear affects your behaviour Non-verbal/Verbal Behaviour  obtained by video, audio, close observation  nature of the task can also be useful Neuroscience  obtained by: fMRI, brain-damaged patients, electroencephalogram (EEG)  lesion subjects are interesting (ie) damage to medial prefrontal cortex you are less able to regulate your behaviour and you do not realize when you have done something wrong Psychophysiology  obtained by spot and band electrodes, temperature sensors, plethysmographs, saliva  measure the physiological process that affect performance SCIENTIFIC METHOD  hypothetico-deductive method 1. examine past knowledge and research 2. form a theory – the conceptual level 3. operationalize the theory into a hypothesis – trick to do for social behaviour 4. test hypothesis 5. revise theory VARIABLE TYPES  variable is essentially anything you measure that will differ across subjects (or else called invariant)  dependent variable (DV) – outcome you are focused on explaining or understanding  independent variable (IV) – predictor, only implies
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