Class Notes (811,321)
Canada (494,649)
Psychology (7,646)
PSYB10H3 (543)

PSYB10 - 6.docx

6 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Elizabeth Page- Gould

LECTURE 6 – EMOTION AND MORALITY  Emotion: A brief physiological and psychological response to an event that is felt subjectively and prepares a person for action  Classes of emotions: -6 Basic emotions -Complex emotions: positive emotions, self-conscious  Basic emotions: 1. Fear 2. Anger 3. Disgust 4. Sadness 5. Happiness 6. Surprise  negative emotions are the ones that make you more fit to survive  Complex emotions: blend of basic emotions -most studied examples are of positive emotions and self-conscious emotions  Positive emotions: positively-valence emotions (mostly complex)  Most studied examples include: -gratitude: feeling of appreciation -contentment: satisfaction -amusement -desire: going towards reward stimulus -love (contested)  Self-conscious emotions: complex emotions elicited by the self  Most studied example include: -pride -shame: response to your action focused on the negative feeling of oneself – more likely to get upset at others and less likely repair -guilt: focus on emotion on how your action effects others – more likely to repair what they did -embarrassment  A more complex definition of emotion: an emotion is a universal, functional reactions to an external stimulus event, temporarily integrating physiological, cognitive phenomenological, and behavioural channels to facilitate a fitness-enhancing, environment-shaping response to a current situation  Temporal Component: emotions are short-lived  real emotions: between 500ms – 4s  fake emotions: between 1s – 10s  an emotion can appear to persist if the emotional stimulus is presented repeatedly  not all emotions have the same duration: -surprise is the briefest -happiness, disgust, and sadness are the standard length -anger and fear last a little longer  Due to their time-course, these things are NOT emotions: -moods (ie being in a good or bad mood) 1 LECTURE 6 – EMOTION AND MORALITY -sentiments (ie wishing someone well) -affective personality traits (ie he is a cheerful person or she is an angry person) -by itself, level of arousal (ie sleepiness)  Mood versus Emotion: moods are a generalized affective state, but they do nto have the following criteria for an emotion: -stimulus-response: a mood is not always a response to an evocative stimulus -time period: moods persist over time (ie minutes, hours, days) -action tendencies: moods may not call for an action -experience: moods are mostly subjective; they are not observable physiologically  Physiology and emotion: peripheral nervous system, central nervous system, proper inference Emotions in the PNS  most researchers require a peripheral physiological response to state that an emotion has occurred -ie heart rate, skin conductance, pre-ejection period, finger temperature  important caveat about inference: -emotions cannot be identified by peripheral responses -indicate degree of arousal or intensity Emotions in the CNS  Areas of the brain involved in the processing emotional stimuli: -Limbic System: Anygdala (fear and anger), hypothalamus (laughter) -frontal cortex (everything else) Proper Inference:  physiological profiles and locations help us understand arousal, intensity and possible circuits  emotions cannot be identified by examining physiological states James-Lange Theory of Emotion:  every emotion has a distinct pattern of physiological responses that characterizes and underlie it  implications: implies that our physiological experience of emotion is the result of our underlying physiological responses  implies that every motion has a physiological signature  specific bodily (physio) response tells us what emotion we are feeling  bodily response is specific Event  Specific Bodily Response  Subjective Emotion  Perception of event: see a bear  Bodily Expression: sweat, increased heart rate, run  Subjective experience: become afraid Feedback to the System: 1. tell participants to pose face in certain ways  directed facial action task -pull eyebrows down and together -raise your upper eyelid 2 LECTURE 6 – EMOTION AND MORALITY -push you lower lip up and press your lips together 2. ask them what expression they are demonstrating 3. measure physiological responses  results indicated that participants were able to identify emotions from instructions  reliable physiological profiles came about Cognitive Appraisals  the meaning of an event affects our emotional response to it  ie getting punched -he meant to do it and he meant it to hurt  anger -he meant to do it, but was joking around  amusement Key Appraisals for Eliciting Emotion  self relevance  goal congruence  blame and responsibility  certainty  coping ability Two Factor Theory of Emotion 1. Physiological arousal is generalized, not specific 2. we apply a label to the arousal based on cognitive appraisal Event  General Arousal + Appraisal  Emotion  Looking back at the seeing a bear example: 1. my heart is pounding! something is happening! 2. Bears are dangerous! I am Scared! Two Factor Theory of Emotion Experiment: 1. Give people heart-rate increasing pill or placebo 2. have them complete a survey with very personal question 3. an actor gets angry at the questionnaire 4. what do the participants do ?  r
More Less

Related notes for PSYB10H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.