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PSYB10 - 8.docx

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Elizabeth Page- Gould

LECTURE 8 – CULTURE, SOCIAL POWER, HIERARCHY What is Culture?  An ever-changing, constructive stimulus which shapes the way individuals perceive and contribute to the world  can be dynamic  influenced by members of the culture  influences members of the culture  nationality – the country you were born in  ethnicity – your cultural heritage  identification – the degree to which you include group membership in your self-concept or sense of who you are  meaning system – symbols, language, experiences -metaphysics – beliefs about the world, universe and existence Describing Cultures  individualism/collectivism  political climate  religious beliefs  ecological differences Individualist Cultures  emphasize personal achievement, even at the expense of others  greater emphasis on competition  ie –Canada, Western Europe Collectivist Cultures  emphasize social roles and collective responsibilities, even t the expense of individual  greater emphasis on co-operation  ie – China, Korea, Latin America Political Climate  political structure greatly constrains behaviour and cultural expression  sometimes government change can extinguish a culture Religious Beliefs  dominant religious beliefs characterize a culture’s moral reasoning and motivations  religion can also affect social roles and norms Ecological Differences  environment context shapes the development and focus of a culture Language-Related Methodological Issues  is the meaning of our words lost in translation when we translate from one langue to another  Lost in translation Experiment 1. participants (Ps) who spoke Argentinean-Spanish, Chinese or English 2. Showed Ps array of objects 3. What word would P use for each object  Results showed that the number of words used for pictured objects by AS=15, E=5, C=7 1 LECTURE 8 – CULTURE, SOCIAL POWER, HIERARCHY -1 C terms applied to all objects, but translated into ‘jar’ in E  Once again the Ps were shown the same array of objects ad asked to group the objects according to similarity -results showed that speakers of all three languages arranged the objects into the same groups  drew a conclusion that while we may call objects by different names, we group them similarly Back Translation  translating a word, phrase or sentence multiple times between two languages until noth translations yield the same phrase How Does Culture Affect Us?  Cognition/Perception – cognitive framing, dialectical vs linear reasoning  Affect – emotional complexity  Behaviour – social roles and norms Cognitive Framing  the perceptual framework through which you view the world  affects the attributions made for events  Cultural Primes – Priming someone with a familiar icon in their culture will temporarily increase their identification with that culture  Method: prime Chinese participants with Chinese icons (100ms) versus Western icons  Results: Observed greater endorsement of traditional Chinese values after Chinese cultural primes Dialectical Thinking  a cognitive reasoning structure through which an individual interprets the environment  three principles: 1. change: everything is in flux/constantly changing 2. contradiction: opposing propositions may both be true 3. wholism: everything is interrelated/interdependent Dialectical Thinking Experiment:  compare proverbs from China and USA  look at degree of linearity or dialecticism in the proverb -Linear thinking: for example is no proof -Dialectical Thinking: beware of your friends, not your enemies  results showed the Chinese had 4x as many dialectical proverbs as Americans  Americans preferred linear to dialectical American proverbs  Chinese preferred dialectical to linear Chinese proverbs  Chinese also preferred dialectical to linear Yiddish proverbs Emotional Complexity  The experience of many emotions at the same time, especially if those emotions are a mixture of positive and negative feelings  correlations between  +/- emotions showed that in the USA there is a negative correlation -if you feel happy, then you feel less sad  East Asians showed no correlation 2 LECTURE 8 – CULTURE, SOCIAL POWER, HIERARCHY -your level of sadness if unrelated to your level of happiness  Chinese and Koreans have a positive correlation between positive and negative emotional intensity Social Norms and Social Roles  social norms are completely relative to cultural context  punishment for violation of social norms varies by culture  importance to social rules varies by culture – East Asians list significantly more social roles in the 20-statemetns test Moving Between Cultures  done through acculturation, assimilation, bicultural identity integration Acculturation  successful integration of the heritage of two cultures  adoption of new culture through incorporating values systems of both new and orginal cultures Assimilation  complete adoption of a new culture  adoption of a new culture and simultaneous rejection of original ulture Bicultural Identity Integration (BII)  degree to which tow cultural identities are integrated into a super-ordinate bicultural identity  two key components -perceived harmony vs. conflict -perceived harmony vs. distance BII and Frame Switching  bring Chinese-American biculturals into the lab  measure BII  prime them with wither Chinese of USA cultural primes  measure attributions on fish image task  results showed internal and external attributions by prime Social Hierarchy  an implicit or explicit rank order of individuals or groups with respect to as valued social dimension Social Power  an asymmetric control over valued resources in social relations  based in resources, which belong to an actor or social object Power Hierarchy  ranking order of individuals with respect to the amount of resources each controls  one type of social hierarchy So
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