PSYB10 Sept. 16, 2013
THE SELF AND SELF-REGULATION
Research and Statistical Methods
o Test philosophical ideas through observation
o Examine past knowledge/research
o Form a theory
o Operationalize the theory into a hypothesis
o Test hypothesis
Usually en masse – trying to generalize to all people.
o Rationalize theory
Theory should not be stagnant. Not changing is a pretty bad sign.
Dependent Variable = “DV”
The variable that you want to be able to predict
Independent Variable = “IV”
The variable that you think will predict your DV
The IV must be experimentally manipulated in order to imply causation
o We consider both variables in a correlational analysis to be “outcomes” to
reﬂect the lack of causal conclusions that can be drawn
No experimental manipulation
o Need to generalize any data PSYB10 Sept. 16, 2013
1. Icecream sales correlated with drowning deaths… There is no causality. There is
a third variable. More icecream is sold during summer when more people are
swimming. More swimming = more chances for drowning.
Covariance and prediction
o One predicts the other when they occur together.
If you have a causal hypothesis, correlations will always support the hypothesis.
A deﬁned IV (predictor) and DV (outcome)
No experimental manipulation
o The IV is a “known group” – natural groups that exist in the world
o e.g., sex, ethnicity, nationality
o This is where the experimental part comes in. Sort of.
Stratiﬁed random sampling: you need an equal amount of people in each of the
known groups (ex. If you‟re studying ethnicities, you need to have an equal
amount of each ethnicity in an area)
Theory of Mind (ability to recognise that other people have distinct minds from us) with 2
age groups. – 3 year-olds and five year-olds.
3: Thinks that everyone has the same knowledge that they do.
5: Is able to realise that other people have different knowledge and ideas than
t-test PSYB10 Sept. 16, 2013
Covariance and Prediction
Discuss differences, but no causality
Random assignment to condition
The effects of chemical substances on social processing. How does MDMA (Ecstasy)
affect a person‟s social attitude? The commonly reported effective is that users feel
Study showed that this belief is not true. However, they were systematically
worse at detecting anger in a person‟s expression.
This might explain the empathy because, if you don‟t receive negative cues, you
feel more positive and connected to other people.
t-test, regression, ANOVA, Bayesian methods
IV causes DV
Def.: An individual consciousness of one‟s own identity
Feelings, observations, and thoughts
Self-awareness: Awareness of the Self as an entity that is distinct from others and the
Tested with the Mark Test (AKA “Rouge Test”) – you already know what this is.
o Children develop self-awareness around a year and a half. PSYB10 Sept. 16, 2013
Levels of Self
Minimal Self: Conscious experience of the Self as distinct from the environment
Occurs by double stimulation: if we touch ourselves, we can feel what our body
feels like and also how it feels to be touched.
o Everything else is single stimulation. We only know what we‟re touching
Objectified Self: Cognitive capacity to serve as the object of one‟s own (or others‟)
Symbolic (Narrative) Self): Ability to form an abstract mental representation of oneself
This may be inherently human
We come to know about ourselves by watching others and realising our
Def.: Your concept of who you are
Everything you know about yourself
Includes qualities, identities, roles, etc
Def.: Cognitive representation of the Self-Concept
The concepts/words in your semantic network that are associated with your
sense of Self
Guides processing of self-related information
Measuring the Self-Concept
Twenty Statements Test (TST)
I am _________
Divided between personality descriptors and social roles PSYB10 Sept. 16, 2013
Def.: The depth and complexity of your Self-Concept
Operationalized as the number of distinct aspects used to deﬁne the Self-
Measuring the Self-Schema
Implicit Personality Test
Reaction time measures.
Priming the person with the concept of „me‟. The traits that are closer to a
person‟s concept will be more quickly responded, whereas those that are further
from the concept will take longer to be responded to.
Global vs. Contextualised Self.
Buffers negative feelings after failure
subset of your Self-Concept that is presently accessible
What goes in the working self-concept?
Recently primed aspects of Self
Contextually distinctive aspects
“Central” aspects of Self
o Those traits will always be a part of the identity
Some aspects of the Self-Concept are more personally important to you than others
“Central” aspects are chronically accessible in the semantic network
How is it measured? Bullseye test: fill in circle with traits that are important to the
person. Those that are more important are those in the middle.
Self-Evaluative Maintenance PSYB10 Sept. 16, 2013
If someone close to you outperforms you in a particular domain, then:
You will be threatened if the domain is central to your Self-Concept
You will be proud if the domain is not central to your Self-Concept
If domain is central to the Self-Concept:
Distance Self from relationship
Distance Self from task domain
If domain is not central to Self-Concept:
Vicarious self-esteem boost
Magnitude of self-esteem boost proportional to closeness of relationship
Def.: Strategy to buffer the self from an anticipated failure or embarrassment by
undermining one‟s own performance
Example: Shepperd & Arkin (1989)
Took students and gave them a test. They were assigned to one of two conditions: one
group was told the test was predictive of the future (diagnostic) while the other group
was told that the test didn‟t really matter (Invalid).
They were also given the option of listening to one of five types of music – except all the
CDs had the same music on them. They were only different by some stickers that had
been put on them – these stickers supposedly indicated the level of success that the
music was supposed to help.
Students in the Invalid group were more likely to choose the music that would
help the performance.
Students in the Diagnostic group were more likely to choose the music that
wouldn‟t help their performance.
o This way, if they screwed up, they could blame it on the music.
Def.: The need to seek conﬁrmation of one‟s Self-concept
Motivated by desire to be understood
Holds true even if Self-concept is negative
o … but only for traits that are central to the Self-Concept PSYB10 Sept. 16, 2013
Example: Giesler, Josephs, & Swann (1996)
Background: Depression involves negative view of self, world, and future, and these
negative views are chronically accessible
Participants write a test that is then supposedly analyzed by two students. The person is
then told that they can only meet one of the two students – one student analyzed that
the participant is awesome while another said the person is awful.
Depressed people chose the student that would give them a negative analysis.
This way it‟s a type of self-verification.
Do we have just one view of the Self?
How many Selves in the Self?
o Independent & Interdependent Selves
o Possible Selves
o Self-Discrepancy Theory
Independent and Interdependent Selves
Independent Self: View of Self as distinct from others
This is the one that psychologists usually talk about
Interdependent Self: Self as inherently linked with others
Includes other people in one‟s view of self
Our roles in the world is inherently linked with other people
Def.: Type of self-knowledge that pertains to how we think about our potential and our
Ideal selves we want to become
Neutral selves we could become
Selves we are afraid of becoming
o Probably more true/complex than the Self-discrepancy theory (see below) PSYB10 Sept. 16, 2013