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PSYB10 Lecture 1.pdf

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Lecture 1: Introduction • Social Psychology: uses scientific methods “to understand and explain how the thought, feeling and behaviour of individuals are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of other beings [others, non-humans].” -GordanAllport, 1985 ABC’s of Social Psychology: • • Affect- emotions, feelings, mood • Behaviour- verbal and nonverbal action • Cognition- thought, sensation, perception, processing, and memory Experimental Setup: • • Research questions (thesis), methods (collect data, execute plan), record • Between-subjects Independent Variable: The Experiment either ... • Equity Condition: subjects get same reward Inequity Condition: subjects get different rewards • • What It Means to be a Social Psychologist: 1) Develop research questions that can be formulated in terms of numbers: sometimes your research questions are “replications” of other people’s published research 2) Collect Data, in numbers, that can be used to test your question 3) Run statistical test(s) to determine if the patterns you think you see in the data exceed what would be expected through randomness 4) Interpret the results of your statistical test(s) 5) Report what you did through the peer-review process: publication; presentations given at conference “symposia” and university “colloquia” • History of Social Psych: • Aristotle, Machiavelli, Darwin Theory: Wundt & James • • Triplett (1898): Social Facilitation • Kurt Lewin • World War II Cultural Events • • Late 1800’s: • psych was a subfield of philosophy • William James- “father” of psychology, did more theorizing than experimenting, but was right on about a lot of his theories, despite not testing them as he went on • Wundt: “Experimental Psychology” =>tested many of James’theories • Triplett (1898): • Social Facilitation- performance affected by presence of others i.e.) cycling in a group vs. by yourself • Kurt Lewin: • “Father of Social Psychology” • Research interest=> perception and cognition; “Dyadic Interactionism” World War II: • • Government suddenly became interested in Social Psychology • persuasion and propaganda first topics studied • key Social Psychologists funded to study effective ways for getting people to buy War Bonds Ads • discovered fear was a good way to get people to listen, but only if you provided a solution i.e.) War BondsAd depicting Nazis symbols on hands [the fear] reaching for baby and mother with war bonds as the solution. • Post-war: • how did Nazi Germany happen? Is it a one-time thing, or can it happen again? • Milgram’s “Obedience toAuthority” • it was found that people will listen to authority, even if they’re harming someone else, if they have a position of power • Cultural Events: • Murder of Kitty Genovese- March 13th, 1964; at least 39 witnesses • no one intervened or even called the police; attack occurred for at least 40 minutes • the witnesses stated they thought someone else would do something, either intervene or call for help • Darley’s & Latane’s “BystanderApathy” research • Jonestown Mass Suicide- November 18th, 1978; 907 people poisoned themselves (or poisoned by their parents) • Social Psych Toolkit: • self-report/surveys- obtained by pencil/pen/paper; computer survey; interview • reaction time tasks- obtained by computers; stop watches; video/audio • priming- presented subliminally and explicit priming • nonverbal/verbal behaviour- obtained by video cameras; audio recording; close observation • neuroscience- obtained by functional MRI (fMRI); brain-damaged patients; electroencephalogram (EEG) • psychophysiology- obtained by spot and band electrodes; temperature sensors; plethysmographs; saliva • Social Cognition: • thinking about social objects • social object- a physical object that has the ability to engage in social cognition i.e.) humans • thinking- automatic cognition; controlled cognition • Cognition: • perception- becoming aware of something through the senses • processing/encoding • storage/knowledge representation • retrieval/application • Pre-attentive Processes: (Perception) • rapid processing of complex scene • rapid= less than 250 ms • complex= large, multi-element display of information • something that “catches your eye” or “pops out at you” • Gaze Detection- one of the ways this has been detected [pre-attentive processes]; if someone is looking at us, we feel it and look back at that person • Processing Informatio
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