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Lecture 3

PSYB10 Lecture 3.pdf

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB10H3
Professor
Page- Gould
Semester
Fall

Description
1 Lecture 3: Person Perception and Social Interaction • Person Perception => Behaviour, Context, and Schemas • Behavioral Input: • Verbal Behaviour • Nonverbal Behaviour • Emblems- gestures that have well-understood meaning within a culture; effectively nonverbal language i.e) peace sign • Power of Behavioral Input: “Thin Slices”- an approach within social psychology focused on the attributional power of brief exposure to others • Context: • Provides additional input • can completely change an attribution as a whole • i.e.)Awoman appears to be crying, but we learn she’s won an olympic medal • Schemas: • what you expect is what you get • Attribution- explanation for an observed behaviour of a social object; very automatic; pattern matching • Attribution Theory: • Internal/External attributions • FundamentalAttribution Error • Covariation Theory • do we attribute behaviour to something about the person (“internal”) or something about the situation (“external”) • Internal Attribution- attributing a person’s behaviour to something intrinsic to that person • personality, disposition, attitude, or character • External Attribution- attributing a person’s behaviour to something about the situation in which the behaviour occurred • specifically not changing beliefs regarding person’s character or personality • Correspondence Bias- tendency to infer that a person’s behaviour corresponds to their disposition, personality, or attitude [tend to assume that the way a person behaves is because of who they are] • FundamentalAttribution Error: • When Perceiving Others- tendency to overestimate the influence of internal causes for behaviour and underestimate external causes • When Perceiving Self- much more likely to attribute own behaviour to external causes • AKA“Fate” • Explanations for the FundamentalAttribution Error (FAE): • Perceptual Salience- tendency to overestimate the causal role of information that grabs our attention • Anchoring &Adjustment Heuristic • Two-Step Process forAttribution: • FAE occurs through the same process asAnchoring andAdjustment Heuristic: 2 • 1) Make an internal attribution • 2)Attempt to adjust away from internal attribution by considering situational constraints • Covariation Theory: • Assumption =>people are lay statisticians • Based on this assumption, 3 factors ofAttribution were theorized: • Consensus- behaviour unique to person =>do other people behave in this way or unique to specific person • Distinctiveness-behaviour unique to situation=> does this person behave like this with other stimuli or just a particular one • Consistency- behaviour unique to this moment in time =>does this person behaviour like this over time or just this one time 3 Patterns Lead to 3Attributions: Consensus Distinctiveness Consistency Attribution Low Low High Internal High High High External High or Low High or Low Low Situational • Self-Serving Biases: Self-servingAttributions: • • Positive outcome for Self =>explain it in terms of internal factors • Negative outcome for Self=> explain it in terms of external facto
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