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PSYB10 Lecture 2.pdf

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1 Lecture 2: The Self & Self-Regulation • Research and Statistical Methods: • Scientific Method • Variable types • Empirical Design -Correlational -Quasi-experimental -Experimental • Scientific Method: • Hypothetico-deductive Method 1. Examine past knowledge/research 2. Form a theory 3. Operationalize the theory into a hypothesis 4. Test hypothesis 5. Revise theory • Variable Types: • Dependent Variable- “DV” • Outcome- the variable that you want to be able to predict • Independent Variable- “IV” • Predictor- the variable that you think will predict your DV • The IV must be experimentally manipulated in order to imply causation • Correlational Designs: • 2 dependent variables- we consider both variables in a correlational analysis to be “outcomes” to reflect the lack of causal conclusions that can be drawn • no experimental manipulation • random sampling • StatisticalAnalysis: • correlation • proper interpretation- covariance and prediction; no causality • Experimental Designs: • manipulated independent variables • random assignment to condition • comparison/control group • StatisticalAnalysis: • t-test, regression,ANOVA, Bayesian methods • proper interpretation- IV causes DV • The Self: • an individual consciousness of one’s own identity =>feelings, observations, and thoughts • SelfAwareness- awareness of the Self as an entity that is distinct from others and the environment; tested with the Mark Test (AKA“Rouge Test”) • Levels of Self: • Minimal Self- conscious experience of the Self as distinct from the environment 2 • Objectified Self- cognitive capacity to serve as the object of one’s own (or others’) attention • Symbolic Self (also called “Narrative Self”)- ability to form an abstract mental representation of oneself through language i.e. creative, funny, efficient, anxious, etc. • The Self-Concept: • your concept of who you are • everything you know about yourself • includes qualities, identities, roles, etc. • Self-Schema: • cognitive representation of the Self-Concept • the way we organize knowledge • the concepts/words in your semantic network that are associated with your sense of Self • guides processing of self-related information i.e.) when you see things that you associate with your Self, you recognize it immediately • Measuring the Self Concept: • Social Roles- “I am an athlete”; “I am a best friend” • Personality Descriptors- “I am messy”; “I am studious” • Self-Complexity- the depth and complexity of your Self-Concept; operationalized as the number of distinct aspects used to define the Self-Concept • Global Vs. Contextualized Self: • Global Self-concept= “I am _____” • Contextualized Self-concept= “I am ____when _____”; buffers negative feelings after failure • Working Self-Concept- a subset of your Self-Concept that is presently accessible; what goes in this => recently primed aspects of Self; Contextually distinctive aspects; “Central” aspects of self • Self-Concept Centrality- some aspects of the Self-Concept are more personally important to you than others; “Central” aspects are chronically accessible in the semantic network • Interesting consequences: • Self-Evaluative Maintenance • Self-Handicapping • Self-Verification • Self-Evaluative Maintenance: • if someone close to you outperforms you in a particular domain, then: • you will be threatened if the domain is central to your Self-Concept • you will be proud if the domain is not central to your Self-Concept • Self-Evaluative Maintenance: • If domain is central to the Self-Concept: • Distance Self from relationship • Distance Self from task domain • If domain is not central to Self-Concept: • Vicarious self-esteem boost • magnitude of self-esteem boost proportional to closeness of relationship • Self-Handicapping: 3 • strategy to buffer the self from an anticipated failure or embarrassment by undermining one’s own performance • Self-Verification: • the need to seek confirmation of one’s Self-concept • motivated by desire to be understood • holds true even if Self-concept is negative • ...but only for traits that are central to the Self-Concept • Independent & Interdependent Selves: • Independent Self- view of self as distinct from others • Interdependent Self- self as inherently linked with others; includes other people in one’s view of self • Possible Selves: • Type of self-knowledge that pertains to how we think about our potential and our future • Ideal selves we want to become • Neutral selves we could become • Selves we are afraid of becoming • Self-Discrepancy Theory: • Actual Self- who you are now • Ideal Self- who you would ideally like to be • Ought Self- who other people think you should be • Self-Esteem: • self-evaluative component of the Self-Concept • Global Self-Esteem- typical level of self-esteem • State Self-Esteem- self-esteem that fluctuates based on situation/context; typically viewed as having 3 distinct domains ... Social State self-esteem; Performance state self-esteem; Appearance state self-esteem • Implicit Self-Esteem- how closely you associate yourself with the concept of “good”; it is “implicit” because
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