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Lecture 6

Lecture 6 of PSYB10.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Elizabeth Page- Gould

Lecture 6-Group processes  Diffrentiating elements of nonsocial vs social groups: Interaction Interdependence  Social groups: Groups have social norms to guide behavior Groups have well defined social roles Vary in level of group cohesiveness  Social norms A group’s prescriptions for the behavior, values, and beliefs of its members Group members are expected to conform to these norms Members who deviate from norms are punished or rejected  Social roles: A groups’ expectations for the behavior and responsibilities of various subgroups of its members Potential costs: Individual personality may be taken over by power of role Violation of social roles meet with censure from other members  Group cohesiveness The degree to which a group IS or is perceived to be close knit and similar In the minds of group members: Cohesiveness promotes liking and in-group favoritism (if meet someone of the group and the group is cohesiveness, more liking and favoritism.) In the minds of outsiders: Cohesiveness increases stereotyping of group members. (sorority/fraternity, stereotyping a group more because they are perceived to be more similar) Stanford Prison Experiment  How do groups affect us Social facilitation and social loafing(created by an interaction of individual evaluation, arousal and task complexity) Social facilitation: performance improve when doing well learned or dominant behaviors in the presence of others, inhibited when doing less practiced or difficult tasks in the presence of others. Social loafing: tendency for ppl to perform worse on simple tasks and better on complex tasks if they are in a group and not being individually evaluated. Evaluation: Evaluation apprehension: concern about being judged/evaluated Socio evaluative threat:extreme evaluation apprehension Body responds with the stress hormone, cortisol Cortisol constricts blood vessels in hippocampus, inhibiting memory and learning Group decision making: group polarization, group think, jury decision making  Group polarization: tendency for groups to make more extreme decisions than the initial inclinations of their members, either greater risk or caution, has both informational and normative explanations, either we value the info and perspectives or just want to have an easy time.  Group think: A mode of thinking that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive in group, when the members’ strivings for unanimity override their motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of action, extreme form of group thinking  Challenger Disaster:it exploded in the air, everyone’ watching, NASA: a launch should be cancelled if there’s any doubt, despite of engineers’ concerns, concerns about O rings because they might be too brittle for the low temperature, below 12C, concerns are suppressed because it is highly publicized, dismissed the concerns  Exploding Whale:  How to prevent group think Apriori assign someone to play Devil’s Advocate Everyone must know that this person was assigned this role Leader remains impartial Seek feedback from people outside the group Begin by creating subgroups which suggest ideas to the group as a whole Anonymous opinions from group members  Jury Decision Making Group decision making and juries Value of unanimity 12 person versus 6 person juries Predeliberation Errors: juries ended with the decision favoured by majority on the initial vote. Cascade Effect: Judgements of initial speakers shape successors, who do not disclose what they know or think.  Unanimous Decisions Requirement of unanimity forces group to be extra cohesive Group think is amplified Lack of unanimity requirement increases rates of guilty verdicts Just World Hypothesis applied to a defendant Predeliberation errors are biased toward belief of defendant’s guilt  Jury Composition 6 person juries convict more often, 12 person juries acquit or are hung more often 12 person juries are more likely to have a dissenter  Deindividuation Bad groups: destructive cults The state in which a person loses the sense of him or herself as an individual Occurs in crowds, when physically anonymous, group chanting or stomping.  Destructive Cults A social group centered around devotion to a person/idea/thing that employs unethical techniques of manipulation or control.  Order of the solar temple Members are high status members of Quebecois, Swiss and French society. Recruit from clubs Beliefs: Mixtures of Christian and New Age ideas. Leaders, faithful group members would get eternal life(burn by fire). Collected 93 million from followers, Investigators began into organization finances and a few group members began to leave.  Destructive cults Defining characteristics 1. Charismatic leaders 2. Leaders are self appointed 3. The leader is the focus of veneration 4. Group culture tends toward totalitarianism 5. Group usually has 2 or more sets of ethics 6. Group presents itself as innovative and exclusive 7. Main goals: Recruitment and fundraising Who should lead? Anyone, Great Person Theory Effective leadership uncorrelated with personality One trait stands out: Integrative complexity: the ability to simultaneously hold, consider, integrate perspectives on an issue. Who does lead? More intelligent Socially skilled, charismatic Driven by power Adaptive and flexible Confident in their leadership abilities Trait dominance Lecture 7-Emotion and Morality  Emotion: a brief physiological and psychological response to an event that is felt subjectively and prepares a person for action.  Classes of emotions  6 Basic emotions  Complex emotions  Positive emotions  Self conscious  Basic emotions  Fear, anger, disgust, sadness, happiness, surprise  Complex
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