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Lecture 6

PSYB10 Lecture 6

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Elizabeth Page- Gould

PSYB10 Lecture 6 – Group Processes Groups - Types of Groups - Social Groups VS Non Social Groups - Social Groups: involve social objects - Interaction - Interdependence - Groups have social norms that guide behaviour. - Groups also tend to have well defined social roles - Groups can vary in levels of group cohesiveness (how much we view a group to be a solid group rather than a diffuse set of individuals) - Social Norms: - A group’s prescriptions for the behaviour, values, and beliefs of its members. - Group members are expected to conform to these norms - Members who deviate from norms are punished or rejected - Social Roles: - A group’s expectations for the behaviour and responsibilities of various subgroups of its members. - Potential Costs: - Individual personality may be taken over by power of role - Violation of social roles meets with censure from other group members - Group Cohesiveness - The degree to which a group IS or IS PERCIEVED TO BE close knit and similar - i.e sororities and fraternities - In the minds of group members: - Cohesiveness promotes liking and in group favouritism - In the minds of outsiders: - Cohesiveness increases stereotyping of group members - How do groups affect us? - 1. Social Facilitation and Social Loafing - 2. Group Decision-making - 3. Deindividuation - 4. Bad groups: Destructive cults 1. Social Facilitation and Social Loafing - Effects of groups on individual performance - Created by an interaction of three factors: - Individual Evaluation - Arousal (physical arousal – sweating, heart rate, etc.) - Task complexity - Social Facilitation: - Tendency for performance to be: - Improved when doing well learned or dominant behaviours in the presence of others. - inhibited when doing less practised or difficult tasks in the presence of others. - Social Loafing: - Tendency for people to perform worse on simple tasks and better on complex tasks if they are in a group and not being individually evaluated. -  People are NOT being individually evaluated! - Evaluation - Evaluation Apprehension: - Concern about being judged/evaluated - Socio-evaluative Threat: - Extreme evaluative threat - Body responds with the stress hormone, cortisol - Cortisol constricts blood vessels in hippocampus, inhibiting memory and learning Group Decision Making - Group Polarization - Group Think - Jury Decision Making Group Polarization - Tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than the initial inclinations of their members. - Can be a shift to either greater risk or greater caution - Has both informational and normative explanations Group Think - “A mode of thinking that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive in- group, when the members' strivings for unanimity override their motivation to realistically ap
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