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Lecture 6

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB10H3
Professor
Elizabeth Page- Gould
Semester
Fall

Description
Lecture 6 Types of Groups Differentiating elements of Nonsocial vs. Social Groups - group members should have the ability to interact with one another to be a social group - interaction - interdependence is needed for a group to be a social group o shared goals and space where you need and depend on one another - can switch from a social group to a non-social group o and vice versa Social Groups - groups have social norms to guide behavior o a group’s perceptions for the behaviours, values, and beleifs of its members o ex. UC Berkeley’s “Naked Guy” o group members are expected to conform to these norms o members who deviate from norms are punished or rejected  ex. UC Berkeley’s “Naked Guy”, the University tried to expel and change his behaviour - groups have well defined social roles o people tend to know what they’re supposed to be doing in the group - vary in levels of group cohesiveness Social roles - a group’s expectations for the behavior and responsibilities of various subgroups of its members o ex. Gender roles in society o prescriptions of behavior that people are supposed to fulfill - potential costs: o individual personality may be taken over by power of role o violation of social roles meets with censure from other group members Group Cohesiveness - the degree to which a group is or is perceived to be close knit and similar - in the mind of group members o cohesiveness promotes liking and in-group favoritism - in the minds of outsiders: o cohesiveness increases stereotyping of group members Social Facilitating and Social Loafing - effects of groups on individual performance - Created by an interaction of three factors: o individual evaluation o arousal  physiological arousal o task complexity  how difficult or easy a task is Social Facilitation - tendency for performance to be: o improved when doing well-learned or dominant behaviors in the presence of others o inhibited when doing less practiced or difficult tasks in the presence of others Social Loafing - tendency for people to perform worse on simple tasks and better on complex tasks if they are in a group and not being individually evaluated Evaluation - evaluation apprehension o concern about being judged/evaluated - socio-evaluative threat o extreme evaluation apprehension o body responds with stress hormone, cortisol o cortisol constricts blood vessels in hippocampus inhibiting memory and learning Group Decision Making - group polarization - group think - Jury decision making Group Polarization - tendency for groups to make decisions hat ate more extreme than the initial inclinations of their members o can be a shift to either greater risk or greater caution o has both informational and normative explanation  we value information that other people have, so we sometimes put aside our own beliefs to take into consideration someone else’s information  the normative explanation happens when norms happen where people do not express their beliefs because they think the group holds a different belief, and they do not want to fall outside the norm Group think - a mode of thinking that people engage in when they are deeply involved on a cohesive in-group, when the members’ strivings for a unanimity override their motivation to realistic
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