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Initial Attraction and Close Relationships - lecture 08 Textbook Notes.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
David Nussbaum

Interpersonal Attraction Textbook Notes Forming Close Relationships  Interpersonal attraction based mostly on first impressions, as long-term (close) relationships are more difficult to study than first impressions. Defining Love  Zick Rubin(1970,1973) defined love as feelings of intimacy, attachment, and passion; argued love is distinct from liking  According to Ellen Berscheid(2010) there are four basic types of love: o Passionate/romantic love o Compassionate (friendship-based) love o Compassionate love o Attachment Love Compassionate vs. Passionate Love  Ellen Berscheid and Elaine Walster o Attempted to capture the difference between the two major kinds of love: compassionate and passionate. o Compassionate Love:  The feelings of intimacy and affection toward someone with whom our lives are deeply intertwined.  Can experience this type of live in non-sexual relationships  Close friendships  Familial relationships o Passionate Love:  The feelings of intense longing, accompanied by physiological arousal; we feel for another person; when our love is reciprocated, we feel great fulfillment and ecstacy; but, when it is not, we feel sadness and despair.  This kind of love is heightened physiological arousal as well as obsessive thoughts about loved one.  Experiment: Researchers recruited uni students in NY who described themselves as “intensely in love” o asked participants to bring 2 photos to the experimental session:  one of their beloved and one of an acquaintance of the same age and sex as their beloved o also asked to fill out questionnaires o slid into a functional MRI (fMRI) scanner, which records increases and decreases in blood flow in the brain.  These changes in blood flow show which parts of the brain have neural activity at any given time. o Researchers found 2 specific areas deep within the brain were activated when participants looked at photos of their romantic partner. o NOT activated when they looked at photos of their acquaintances o Those participants who reported higher levels of passionate love showed greater activation in these areas. o These two brain areas were the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the ca
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