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Lec 4-Intergroup Relations, Stereotyping & Prejudice.docx

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Elizabeth Page- Gould

Lec 4 (Pg.138-187): Intergroup Relations, Stereotyping & Prejudice INgroup  A social group to which you belong OUTgroup  A social group to which you do NOT belong Intergroup Processes  Situations, cognitions, beliefs, and feelings that arise when people from different groups interact with or think about each other Social Identity Theory  A diffuse but interrelated set of theories about when and why individuals identify with, and behave as a part of, social groups • Assumptions, Components Assumptions of Social Identity Theory  We have all have a need for positive self-regard How do we achieve this positive self-regard? • Via our own achievements • Via identification with the achievements of the social groups to which we belong Social Identity Theory 1. Categorization 2. Identification 3. Comparison 4. Psychological Distinctiveness Categorization  People naturally group other social objects into groups Creates ingroup-outgroup distinction Group Categorization Why do we categorize people into groups? Old way of thinking: -Laziness New way of thinking: -Cognitive miser Cognitive miser perspective • We have limited cognitive resources that must be conserved • Engage in mental shortcuts (e.g., heuristics) Applied to group categorization: • Categorize people on the basis of shared features • Can trivially create “minimal groups” Minimal Groups  Ingroups and Outgroups formed on trivial, highly context-specific features Minimal Group Paradigm  Creating ingroups and outgroups from the most minimal of conditions Classic examples: Sandals versus sneakers on 1st day of class, Blue versus yellow t-shirts distributed in the lab (Tajfel&Turner) Method: 1. Participants come into lab in groups 2. Asked to estimate the number of dots on a page 3. Randomly assigned to groups: “Overestimators” and “Underestimators” 4. Participants rate each group… give study payment to ingroup or outgroup member Results: • Overestimators viewed Underestimators as less likeable, kind, and effective than Overestimators • Underestimators viewed Overestimators as less likeable, kind, and effective than Underestimators • Overestimators distributed much less money to Underestimators • Underestimators distributed much less money to overestimators Summary: Minimal Groups • Group categorization occurs rapidly and even trivially • Impact of group categorization is profound Identification  The processes of associating the self with certain ingroups • Bolsters self-esteem • Effects of social identity theory are dependent on identification with the group Comparison • We compare ingroups with outgroups, seeing a favourable bias toward the group to which we belong • Ingroup Favouritism • Outgroup Derogation Ingroup Favouritism • Belief that the Ingroup is good across a variety of characteristics and more deserving of good things • Maintains positive status of group (and positive self-regard) Examples: • Remember only the good (and not bad) characteristics of group members • Alloca
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