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Lecture 8

PSYB10 LECTURE 8.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB10H3
Professor
Professor Page
Semester
Summer

Description
June 29 2012 PSYB10 LECTURE 8: Culture, Social Power & Hierarchy Benet-Martnez et al. (2002), Magee & Galinsky (2008) - Culture an ever changing, constructive stimulus which shapes the way individuals perceive and contribute to the world 1. Dynamic - ever changing, your culture is not the same culture of your parents, or even siblings (who are much older than you) 2. Influenced by members of the culture culture affects you and you affect culture (e.g. protests, artists etc) 3. Influences member of the culture how most people think about culture - Nationality the country you were born in - Ethnicity your culture heritage (Korean, Chinese, Vietnamese, Italian etc) - Identification shared identity of group members how much you incorporate your culture in yourself - Culture is a meaning systems, which means cultures includes language, emblems, symbols and experiences - Language shapes our cognition - Metaphysics the history of our culture, beliefs about the world, universe and existence Describing cultures - Individualistic cultures emphasizes personal achievement even at the expense of others - Greater emphasizes on competition (e.g. Canada, Western Europe) - Focus on personal achievement and attainment - Collectivist cultures emphasize social roles and collective responsibilities even at the expense of the individual (you sacrifice yourself for the group) - Greater emphasis on cooperation (e.g. China, Korea, Latin America) - When measured in separate dimensions there may be a conflict Japan is rated high on collectivist however, they are also rated high on individualism - You can have both (collectivist and individualistic attributes) however, most of the time its opponent and independent - Political Climate political structure greatly constrains behaviour and culture expression - Sometimes government change can extinguish a culture - Religious Beliefs Dominant religious beliefs characterize a cultures moral reasoning and motivations - Religion also affects social roles and norms - Ecological differences environmental context shapes the development and focus of a culture How does culture affect us? - Cognitive mechanism (how do we think) the western assumption that talking is connected to thinking to thinking in not shared in the East (thinking in words vs. jumping thoughts) 1 - Study (2003) East Asian American and European American participants , all given a cognitive task - while solving a cognitive task ; thinking aloud verbalize your thought process OR in a articulatory suppression say alphabet aloud - When there is interference is the task domain people make more errors whereas when people conduct two tasks that take 2 domains people dont make that many errors - Results Thinking aloud mild boost in performance congruent with your though process while with the articulatory process peoples thought process (ability to think) was disturbed thus, harming their performance - The East Asian participants in both cases (articulatory and thinking aloud) any form of verbalization is harming their performances because in both cases the verbalization is interfering with how to think - Cognitive framing the perceptual framework through which you view the world affects the attributions of events (how you interpret the world) - Study (Cultural Primes, 1997) priming someone with a familiar icon of their culture will temporarily increase their identification with that culture - Prime Chinese participants with Chinese icons (roo-ms) versus Western icons - Observe greater endorsement of traditional Chinese values after Chinese cultural primes - After participants were primed with their images that related to their culture, they said they personally believed more in the traditional values of their own culture - If am thinking of my culture, I am going to act accord to my culture - Dialectical Thinking a cognitive reasoning structure through which an individual interprets the environment Change everything is in a flux/constantly changing belief in change Contradiction opposing propositions may both be true the world is full of contradiction and linear thinking Wholism everything is interrelated/interdependent (two contradictory things can be true as they are related) - Study Peng and Nisbett (1999) method compare proverbs from China and US look at degree linearity or dialecticism in proverbs (e.g. linear thinking for example is no proof) - Linear thinkers just cause the two things are familiar doesnt mean its true whereas for dialectic thinkers example are a source of evidence - Results Chinese has 4 times as many dialectical Americans - Preferences Americans preferred linear proverbs whereas Chinese students preferred dialectical proverbs - Emotional Complexity the experience of many emotions at the same time, especially if those emotions are a mixture of positive and negative feelings - Correlations between positive and negative (2002) In US negative correlation (if you feel happy, then you feel less sad however in East Asians there is no correlation (your level of sadness is unrelated to your level of happiness - Chinese and Koreans have a positive correlation between positive and negative emotional intensity - - Social roles are completely relative to cultural context 2- Punishments for violation of social norms varies by culture too - Importance of social roles varies by culture - East Asians list significantly more social roles in twenty statement test - Social norms varies by cultures, some culture really worry about maintaining social norms - Acculturation successful integrating of the heritage if two cultures - Adoption of new culture through incorporating value systems of both and original cultures - Assimilation complete adopt a new cultures and reject of original cultures - Assimilation is more negative, its better to be flexible with culture - Bi-culture identity Integration (BII) degree to which two cultural identities are interrelated into a super ordinate bicultural identity I am American Canadian Perceived Harmony vs. Conflict Perceived Similarity vs. Distance - Study bring Chinese American Bi-culturals into lab, measure BII and then primed them with either Chinese or US cultural primes, measure attributions on fish image task - Results corresonponding bias individualistic American cultures made more internal attributions while East Asian cultures made external attributions - Internal attributions = higher BII and external attributions =lower BII - When Chinese primed they make more external attributions and when American primed then people made more internal attributions Social Power and Hierarchy - Social hierarchy an implicit
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