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Lecture 7


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June 23, 2012 Lecture 7 Initial Attraction and Close Relationships - Propinquity effect (Proximity) the more we see and interact with other people, the more likely we are to become our friends - Occurs through the process of familiarity - Mere exposure the more exposure you get to a neutral object, the more you will like it, does not apply if the object has negative qualities - more GENERAL than proximity - If your exposed to something you dont like, you dislike it more as your exposed to it - MIT Dorm Study (1950) married graduate student dorms - the location of your apartment predicted who you became friends with - You were much likely to be friends with your next door neighbor 41%, 2 doors apartnd 22%, opposite hallways 10% and apartments 1 and 5 had more friends from 2 floor - We like things that are familiar to us things/people we see often - Moreland and Beach (1992) method confederate sits in front row of class for 0-15 classes, at the end of the semester, students rate liking of confederate - Results the more that they see him, the more directed they were to say they liked him - Mere exposure of your own faces we tend to prefer our mirror image way more than a photograph image whereas friends prefer photography image - This is because we are used to seeing ourselves in the mirror where as when friends see us they see us like photographs - Why does proximity promote attraction? 1. Availability/accessibility the number times you see someone and think of 2. Because it suggests similarity we like people who are like us (similar to us) 3. Mere exposure - Complementarity (opposites attract) - Similarity (birds of a feather flock together) - Research supports the idea that similarity promotes liking - Study (Newcob, 1961) method randomly assigned 1 year college roommates, measured all sorts of personality traits, attitudes, etc and then looked at friendship formation after first year - Traits of dominance and submissiveness tend to be better in relationships than both partners being dominate or submissive thus in this cases opposite attract - The study however showed that similarity wins, and was a better predictor of friendship formation Reciprocal liking - We dont like to admit we like someone because we want to make sure the opposite person feels the same before admitting it - We like people better if they like us - Basic cues of liking in a social interaction if people are making a lot of eye contact (is a individual difference, some people are nervous thus they constantly look away), leaning in (behavioral cue) and attentive listening (social capital) - If people begin to mimic others, that means you may like them - Less true for people with low esteem/negative self concept - Reciprocity we like who like us - Study (Curtis and Miller, 1986) method randomly pair participants, tell one participant that their partner either does or does not like them, partner and participant interact and post interaction liking is measured 1- People who were told that their partners did like them (before the interaction) they liked them too after the interaction vise versa - Playing hard to get doesnt actually work, it may work initially but not in the long run - Study Physical attractiveness and liking (Walter, 1996) method 752 freshmen met up at a blind date dance, assigned to random rate, who wanted to go on a date again? - Results desire for second dare driven mainly by partners attractiveness, independent of raters attractiveness and no personality affects - What makes people attractive features of the face that systemically get rated as attractive - Men large eyes, strong cheekbones, large chin (dominance) and a big smile - Women large eyes, small nose, prominent cheekbones and narrow cheeks, high eyebrows, large pupils and a big smile - Baby faced-ness features large eyes, rounder face and nose - Outcomes more persuasive (sweet and innocent) , more trustworthy, evoke liking and care giving behaviours - Good health facial symmetry - Sexual maturity cheekbones - Dominance square jaw - Submission and getting nurturing baby-faced - Symmetry matters ( study Longlois and Roggman) shown 2 faces, and one merged pic (composite pic) of the two faces - Strangely, composite (merged picture of two faces) is rated more attractive than individual - Composite faces will be more familiar and more prototypical - Composite faces are also
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