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PSYB10H3 (544)

Lecture 1 Notes.doc

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PSYB10H3 (Fall) 201 2 Lecture 1 (09/10/12) • Theoretical History… • William James -Philosopher of the mind (create theories about how our mind works) -Started to incorporate and move towards more scientific approaches st • 1 experimental psychology lab in North America was at U of T • Wundt was the one who used experimental psychology • Triplett (1898) - Social Facilitation: Performance affected by the presence of others (eg. Cycling) - Performance can be enhanced or decreased • Kurt Lewin - Father of Social Psychology - Interests were in perception and cognition - “Dyadic Interactionism” • World War II - Government became interested in social psychology, especially persuasion and propaganda - Key social psychologists were funded to study effective War Bond Ads - Post-war: How did Nazi Germany happen? - Milgram’s “Obedience to Authority” • Cultural Events - Murder of Kitty Genovese (March 13 , 1964) with at least 39 witnesses - “Bystander Apathy” PSYB10H3 (Fall) 201 2 - Jonestown Mass Suicide (Jim Jones’ People’s temple), Nov 18 , 1978, 907 people poisoned themselves • Social Psychological Toolkit - Self-report/Surveys: Obtained by pencil-and-paper, computer survey, and interview - Reaction Time Tasks: Obtained by computers, stop watched and video/audio - Priming: Presented subliminally or explicit priming - Nonverbal/Verbal behaviour: Obtained by video camera, audio recording, and close observation - Neuroscience: Obtained by fMRI, brain-damaged patients, and EEG - Psychophysiology; Obtained by spot and band electrodes, temperature sensors, plethysmographs, and saliva • Research and Statistical Methods - Scientific Methods: Hypothetico-Deductive Method 1. Examine past knowledge/research 2. Form a theory 3. Operationalize the theory into a hypothesis 4. Test hypothesis 5. Revise theory - Variable Types: 1. Dependent Variable = “DV”, the outcome 2. Independent Variable = “IV”, the predictor - Empirical Design -Correlational Key features: 2 DVs, no experimental manipulation, and random sampling (eg. Ice-cream sales correlate with drowning deaths) PSYB10H3 (Fall) 201 2 Statistical Analysis: Correlation, regression, or Bayesian Proper Interpretation: Covariance and prediction, no causality -Quasi-experimental Key features: Defined predictor and outcome, IV is not manipulated (“Known groups” IV, such as sex and ethnicity), Stratified random sampling, comparison/control groups (eg. Theory of Mind) Statistical Analysis: Correlation, regression, ANOVA, or Bayesian Proper Interpretation: Covariance and prediction, discuss differences but no causality -Experimental Key Features: Manipulated IV(s), random assignment to condition, comparison/control group Statistical Analysis; regression, ANOVA, and Bayesian Proper Interpretation; IV causes DV • Social Cognition: Thinking about social objects • Social object: Object with social properties, a physical object that has the ability to engage in social cognition • Thinking Automatic cognition Controlled Cognition • Cognition Perception: becoming aware of something through the senses Pre-Attentive Processes: -Rapid processing of complex scene -Rapid= less than 2
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