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Lecture 6


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Elizabeth Page- Gould

-1Lecture 6 - Emotion & Morality à Emotion: What is an emotion?: à a brief physiological and psychological response to an event that is felt subjectively and prepares a person for action What is not an emotion?: à moods are not emotions (moods tend to last a long time, emotion has to a rise and fall in 4 minutes) à sentiments are not emotions à personality traits are not emotions à arousal (e.g. sleepiness) is not strictly an emotion Why not mood? à Moods are diffuse - don’t need to have an eliciting cause - don’t need to have a target à Moods may not call for an action à moods persist over time Classes of emotions: à 6 basic emotions 1. fear 2. anger 3. Disgust 4. Sadness 5. Happiness 6. Surprise Paul Ekman à complex emotions: blends of basic emotions. - positive emotions: positively-valanced emotions (mostly complex) - most studied examples: - gratitude, contentment, amusement, desire, love (contested) - self-conscious: complex emotions elicited by the self - most studied examples: - pride +, shame - (personal), guilt - (towards someone else), embarrassment +/- Measuring emotions: à Self-report: reliable method à facial EMG: muscles are linked with our emotions Levator labi: disgust Curragator supercilious: negative orbicular is oculi: real smile vs. fake smile. [zygomaticus major (side muscles on your cheeks) - more activity in those muscles when youre feeling good] Natural response is symmetrical Duchen: through facial displays we understand emotions and react to them How do we measure this? EMG - Electromyography à captures subtle facial movements à best used for situations where facial movements is not visually detecable à obtrusive measurement technique We use emg when we’re trying to pick up subtle emotions, not visible to the eye EMG limit’s the type of experiments you can do because its in your face (literally) Facial Action Coding System (FACS) à know someone will be making a facial display, then you can use FACS - sitting in lab, sitting in front of a tv screen and then a camera will be directly on your face - then I show you a bunch of pictures à needs to be facs trained. Gave a number to every muscle in the face à facial action units.You stop the image, frame by frame esp 4 mins after its been presenting, tick of which numbers have been activated. Then by matching them, you find out what emotion was expressed Measure: self report, or EMG, FACS Components of Emotion: Definition: an emotion is universal, functional reaction to an external stimulus event, temporarily integrating physiological, cognitive, phenomenological, and behavioral channels to facilitate a fitness-enhancing, environment-shaping response to a current situation. -- Temporal component: integrates: host of responses. Stimulus goes away, so will the integration across the different domains -- Physiological & Emotion: à Emotions in peripheral nervous system: - not brain or spinal cord. - Sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems: Response to an event across those systems. Eg. Heart rate, skin conductance, pre ejection period (heart beats, pushes blood out), finger temperature = indicate degree of arousal -Brain is highly equipped to process emotion Limbic system: Amygdala: fear & anger Hippocampus: laughter Frontal Cortex: Everything else. Physiology & Emotion: Proper Inference à Physiology allows us to get a sense of how aroused people are and how intense. BUT specific emotions cannot be identified by examing physiological states. Cant read your mind, by reading your body. Temporal: Short lived à doesn’t last longer than 4 minutes in response to a particular stimulus ___________________________ Two theory of Emotion James- Lange Theory of Emotion: à Specific bodily (physic) response tell us what emotion we are feeling. Feel something in my body, systemically will make me feel an emotion. One pattern that is sadness, one is fear, etc. à Bodily response is specific Event - specific bodily response - subjective emotion Example: Caveman. Perception of event: see a bear. Bodily expression: swear, increased heart rate à RUN! Because of the emotional response you know you are afraid. Subjective experience: become afraid Feedback to the system: Levenson, Ekman & Friesen Facial displays you make can make you feel an emtion. (sad? Smile and you will feel better) Method: 1.Tell participants to pose face in certain ways - “Directed facial action task” 2.Ask them what expression they are demonstrating 3. Measure physiological responses Results: à Participants were able to identify emotions from instructions à reliable physic profiles ( This case, he seen reliable patterns of body of reactions. Havent shown physic comes first, observe the physic then the emotion. But can give you an emotion and then observe a physic response. Cognitive Component: Cognitive appraisals: -- the meaning of an event affects our emotion response to it - ex: getting punched 1. He meant to do it and he meant to hurt you: anger 2. He meant to do it, but was just joking around: amusement Key appraisals for eliciting emotion: - self-relevance (murder at your neighbours or muder in a random country. Fear?) - goal congruence (how much does the event coinside with your own goals? Frustration: blocked from goal. Ttc messed up, notgonna make deadline) - blame and responsibility - certainty (how sure you are of the appraisal of the event. didn’t apprail is properly: emotion will hold off. Up until the point where you are certain, your emotion holds off) - coping ability Two factor theory of emotion: 1. Physiological arousal is generalized, not specific 2. We apply a label to the arousal based on cognitive appraisal. First factor: you feel aroused. Why am I aroused? Second factor: you apply a label to the arousal you are feeling based on how you feel about it James lange difference: have an event that elicit’s the stimulus -> leads to a general sense of arousal, and then once you make the arousal that leads to the experience of emotion. Emotion is a very cognitive thing. The only thing we only think we have something like fear or sadness, is because of our language. If we didn’t have those words, we wouldn’t feel them. Event - general arousal - appraisal - emotion Cave man sees bears: 1. My heart is pounding! Somehtings happening. 2. Bears a
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