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University of Toronto Scarborough
Elizabeth Page- Gould

-1Lecture 8 Culture, Social Power, & Hierarchy: Defining Culture: What is culture? Why should we care? An ever-changing, constructive, stimulus which shapes the way individuals perceiver and contribute to the world 1. ever-changing: dynamic. [culture changes] 2. constructive: influenced by members of the culture: [you affect your culture] 3. shapes: influences members of the culture: how culture affects you Nationality - the country you were born in Ethnicity - your cultural heritage Identification- shared identity of group members [important moderater. doesnt mean you are defined by it] Meaning System: symbols, language, experiences all shared among the members of the same culture Metaphysics: beliefs about the world, universe, and existence Describing Cultures: 1. Individualism/Collectivism: Individualist Cultures: emphasize personal achievement, even at the expense of others Greater emphasis on competition E.g. Canada, Western Europe Collectivist Cultures: emphasizes social roles and collective responsibilities, even at the expense of the individual. Greater emphasis on co-operation E.g. China, Korea, LatinAmerica Measure them as separate dimensions, a dicatimy doesnt work. Can have both at the same time. Usually see them as opposites but they dont have to be. 2. Political Climate Political structure greatly constrains behaviour and cultural expression Sometimes government change can extinguish a culture 3. Religious Beliefs: Dominant religious beliefs characterize a cultures moral reasoning and motivations Religion also affects social roles and norms 4. Ecological Differences Environment context shapes the development and focus of a culture How does culture affect us? Cognition/Perception: Cognitive Mechanisms: - how do we think? - the western assumption that talking is connected to thinking is not shared in the east (thinking in words) STUDY: Kim - Method: - East-AsianAmerican & European-American - While solving a cognitive task Thinking aloud: verbalize your thought process Articulatory Suppression: Say alphabet aloud If you are doing something that interrupts your thought process (think in words - saying the alphabet out loud takes it up) task that takes two domains : no errors Results: by saying alphabet it interrupted peoples ability to think using words both cases any form of verbalization is harming their performance Cognitive Framing: (schema, set of expectations you will fit behaviour into) - the perceptual framework through which you view the world - affects the attributions made for events STUDY: Cultural primes (hong, chui, kung) - priming someone with a familiar icon of their culture will temporarily increase their identification with that culture - Prime Chinese praticipants with Chinese icons (roo ms) vs. Western icons - observer greater endorsement of traditional Chinese values after Chinese cultural primes if im primed to think about my culture, Ill act more like them Dialectical thinking: (vs. linear thinking) Acognitive reasoning structure through which an individual interprets the environment 3 principles: Changes: everything is in flux/constantly changing Contradiction: opposing propositions may both be true Wholism: everything is interrelated/interdependent STUDY: Peng & Nisbett Method: Compare proverbs from China and US - look at degree of linearity or dialecticism in proverb: - Linear thinking: for example is no proof (just cause its similar, doesnt mean its true) - Dialectical thinking beware of your friends, not your enemies Results: Chinese had four times as many dialectical proverbs asAmericans - Preferences: -Americans preffered linear to dialecticalAmerican - Chinese preferred dialectical to linear Chinese proverbs - Chinese also preferred dialectical to linearYiddish proverbs Emotional Complexity: The experience of many emotions at the same time, especially if those emotions are a mixture of positive and negative feelings Emotional Complexity & Culture Western -- singular form of emotional experience Eastern -- happy and sad at the same time Correlations between positive and negative emotions (Schimmack, Oishi, Diener) - In US Negative correlation E.g. if you feel happy then you feel less sad - In eastAsians No correlation E.g. your level of sadness is unrelated to your level of happiness Chinese and Koreans have a positive correlation between positive and negative emotional intensity Social Norms & Social Roles social norms are completely relative to cultural context very local cultures you can have (utsc has a culture) punishment for violation of social norms varies by culture, too importance of social roles varies by culture - eastAsians list significantly more social roles in Twenty Statements Test Moving Between Cultures Acculturation: - successful integration of the heritage of two cultures - adoption of new culture through incorporating value systems of both new and original cultures (take the best of both worlds, own individual way of making them work together) Assimilation - complete adoption of a new culture -- more negative outcome -Adoption of a new culture and simultaneous rejection of original culture Bicultural Identity Integration - Degree to which two cultural identities are integrated into a super-ordinate bicultural identity (I amAmerican Canadian- separate from being just american or canaidna)
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