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Lecture

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB10H3
Professor
Elizabeth Page- Gould
Semester
Fall

Description
-1Lecture 4: Attitudes: a like or dislike that influences our behaviour toward someone or something Affective: what you feel about something Behaviour: what you are likely to do Cognition: what you think about something What goes in an attitude? Valence: à good or bad you think something is. [bipolar dimension from good to bad] Strength: à intensity of the attitude 2 people don’t like iphones. 1 doesn’t like them, just don’t really care for them à negatively valence attitude, not a very strong attitude Other person: really hates them! Same level of valence, but really strong Attitude Types: Explicit attitudes: a attitude stored in the form of a statement of which you are fully aware Ex: what do you think about Tims?You have a large amount to say about it. You are aware Implicit attitudes: attitude stored as an association in your semantic network à Association between the object of the attitude and the concepts of “good” and “bad” à you may or may not be aware of it Attitudes and Behaviour Which comes first? Your belief about something à your behaviour in relation to that thing à Cognitive Dissonance: à Festinger àAchange in people’s behaviour alters their attitudes Dissonance: unpleasant feeling of tension [behaviour is different from attitudes and values] à you experience unpleasant tension when: - you experience contradictory attitudes [you love JB, your best friends hates JB - conflict that creates tension. You hold it so strongly, someone you care about does not] - you behave inconsistently with you attitudes [hang out with people that hate JB, you want to fit in, you talk trash talk him, but then you remember and you feel tension] To relieve this tension:… - you change your attitude since you cannot change your behaviour - Or, you reappraise the situation so that your behaviour no longer indicates anything about your attitudes - Over justification effect STUDY: Boring experiment, turn wooden pegs When you leave, the experimenter says [need people to be really motivated for the task] 2 out of the 3 they ask for help: 1. I’ll give you 20 bucks extra if you tell them it was really fun 2. I’ll give you 1 dollar to tell them it was really fun 3. Thanks for participating ONE WEEK LATER: a different person from the lab calls the participants and says “how enjoyable was the study?” à 1 dollar to lie, one week later à said it was quite enjoyable [changed attitude to be congruent with the lie that they told] à control condition said it was not enjoyable à 20 = 0 Over justification effect: à if one can justify an attitude-inconsistent behaviour, then they will not experience dissonant feelings Post-decision dissonance: Dissonance aroused after making a decision, typically reduced by: à enhancing the attractiveness of the chosen alternative à Devaluing the rejected alternatives STUDY: - Brehm Housewives into the lab to look at a number of household appliances Toaster, coffee maker, waffle iron Rate each item. Took the top two rated items You get to leave with one of the items as your gift. Experimenter randomly gave them one of them. 20 minutes later, rate them again [item that was chosen for them, mild increase. didn’t end up getting, rating it much lower] Spreading of alternatives: they were almost equal, then you make a decision, the way you become okay with the decision is by devaluing the other one Liking: à Positively-valence attitude Balance theory: à To reduce cognitive dissonance, we desire to keep a positive “balance” between our opinions and those of others + Friend + Friend Self + Self - + Issue + Issue Three positives = + = negative Options when unbalanced: à try to change friend’s attitude à OR change your attitude toward the issue à OR change your liking your friend Attitude change: à Persuasion: -- the altering of an existing attitude or the adoption of a new attitude Routes of persuasion: à Central route of persuasion - when a person invests the necessary decision-making time and effort to evaluate the evidence and logic behind each persuasive message à Peripheral route to persuasion - When people attend to indirect factors to make a decision about a persuasive message (e.g. speaker’s appearance) 6 basic tendencies to say “yes” 1. Reciprocation norm: à a social norm stating that we should try to repay in kind what another person has given us à the power of a gift Ex: free samples in store, you feel more obligated to buy iy 2. Consistency à People will go to extremes to try to appear consistent in their behaviour à Public commitments are powerful determinates of behaviour EX: Restaurant reservations: à if told “please call if you need to cancel” à 30% = no call, no show OR à If asked, “will you please call if you need to cancel?” and wait for response “Yes I will” à 10% = no call, no show 3. Social proof à We follow the lead of similar others, and accept “personal stories” as proof of a products promises Ex. Websites = Emily lost 30 pounds! But who are they to you? Social proof as information: - other people’s “stories” is a very effective means of persuasion - the experiences of others are used as pieces of information for decision-making STUDYexample: Method: on a cold winter new york morning, a man stops on a busy widewalk, and gazed skyward for 60 seconds, at nothing in particular 5, 10, or 15 men looking up How many other people join and look up? 15 = more 4. Liking à If you like someone, you are more likely to do what they want you to do Liking as a persuasive tool: effective campaigns using liking: Tupperware parties: close friends gather for a party, party is organized by Tupperware. Big catch: friends are selling to friends. 5.Authority à We are much more likely to be persuaded if we perceive the source of the persuasive message to be credible or respectable Example: Celebrities, actors dressed in lab coats [lab coat makes you think they know what they are talking about] STUDYexample: Method: Can you get people to J walk? Real intersections, had research assistants taking down the results. They had an actor cross wearing a suit, and in the other case, same guy, was wearing jeans and a tshirt. How many other people walk as well?[dv] Results: 3.5 times are many followed when he wore a suit 6. Scarcity àAn item or opportunity becomes more desirable as it becomes less available Ex: closing sale! Cant do it later, want to do it now. [they would have usually not done it if they had known it would be gone] Persuasion Strategies: Door-in-the-face technique: After making someone refuse a large unreasonable request, they will be more likely to agree to a more reasonable second request STUDY: asked college students moderate request: sign up for this program where you take juvenile delinquents to the zoo for 2 hours? - Half were first asked for a big quest: counselor at juvenile correction factuality for 2 hours per week for 2 years Moderate request only: 15-20% said yes. Other half asked heavy one first, and then lighter one, 50% said yes. Foot-in-the-door: After agreeing to a small request, people are more likely to agree to a larger request than they might have been without the first small request [works through our desire for consistency] STUDY: Method: ask homeowners moderate request: put “drive carefully” sign on lawn. -- ask some homeowners for small request first: sign safe driving petition two weeks earlier. Moderate request only: 15% agreed. BUT if two weeks earlier they had signed a petition, then 60% agreed to put the sign up. Low-balling: à inducing a customer to agree to purchase a product at a low cost, and then increasing the price at the last minute -- relies on consistency -- the product never changes, only the price of the product STUDY: Half participants: experiment asked “will you participate in my experiment tomorrow?” 50% said yes. Then he said “it’s at 7am” 95% participants showed up Other half of participants: Will you participate in my experiment tomorrow at 7am? 24% of potential participants “yes” Bait-and-switch à Drawing someone in by making a desirable offer, but then changing the deal or switching the terms at the last minute - Differs from low balling: the product is something different from the original offer [the switch] That’s not all! -- padding an offer with an additional offer before that
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