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Lecture 4

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Elizabeth Page- Gould

Lecture 4 (10/01/12) • Attitude: A like or dislike toward someone or something, a belief you hold that is associated with “good’ and “bad” • Valence: how good or bad you think something is • Attitude Object: The “target” of the attitude is the thing about which you hold an attitude, which can be a thing, person, place, or an idea • ABCs of Attitude: A: Affective: What you feel about something B: Behavioural: what you are likely to do C: Cognitive: What you think about something • Attitude has Valence and Strength: -Valence: How good or bad you think something is, or bipolar dimension from good to bad -Strength: It is the intensity of the attitude, how much something “arouses” one’s attitude • Two types of attitudes: -Explicit Attitudes: A like or dislike toward an object that is stored in the form of a statement and of which you are fully aware. Explicit attitudes are propositions, which is a statement or assertion that expresses a judgement or opinion. You always know what your explicit attitudes are. -Implicit Attitudes: A like or dislike toward an object stored as an association in your semantic network, it is an association between the object and your concepts of “good” and “bad”. You may or may not be aware of your implicit attitudes. • Your belief about something and your behaviour in relation to that thing are both affecting each other • More evidence shows your behaviour in relation to that thing affects your belief about something more significantly • Cognitive Dissonance: A change in people’s behaviour alters their attitudes (Festinger, 1957) • Dissonance: Unpleasant feeling of tension • You experience unpleasant tension (dissonance) when you experience contradictory attitudes, and when you behave inconsistently with your attitudes • To relieve this tension, you change your attitude since you cannot change your behaviour, or you reappraise the situation so that your behaviour no longer indicates anything about your attitudes (Overjustification Effect) • Look at the pdf for the experiment by Festinger & Carlsmith (1959) at 15:00~ • Overjustification Effect: If one can justify an attitude-inconsistent behaviour, then they will not experience dissonant feelings (External appraisal for cause of dissonance) • The ironic effects of Overjustification is that the disengagement from tasks that you genuinely enjoy if rewarded extrinsically for them • Post-Decision Dissonance: Dissonance aroused after making a decision, typically reduced by enhancing the attractiveness of the chosen alternative, and by devaluing the rejected alternatives. • Experiment by Brehm (1956) on pdf, at 22:00~ • Liking: Positively-valenced attitude • Balance Theory: To reduce cognitive dissonance, we desire to keep a positive “balance” between our opinions and those of others (Self, Friend, and Issue) • When it is unbalanced, we can try to change friend’s attitude, or change your attitude toward the issue, or change your liking of your friend • Persuasion: The altering of an existing attitude or the adoption of a new attitude • “Routes” of Persuation: -Central route to persuasion: when a person invests the necessary decision-making time and effort to evaluate the evidence and logic behind each persuasive message -Peripheral route to persuasion: When people attend to indirect factors to make a decision about a persuasive message (ex, physical appearance) • 6 Basic Tendencies to say “YES” 1. Reciprocation 2. Consistency 3. Social Proof 4. Liking 5. Authority 6. Scarcity • Reciprocity Norm: A social norm stating that we should try to repay in kind what another person has given us, the power of gift • Consistency, people will go to extremes to try to appear consistent in their behaviour, the public commitments are powerful determinants of behaviour • With consistency, a Restaurant Reservation example in pdf (32) • Social Proof: We follow the lead of similar others, and accept “personal stories” as proof of a product’s promises • Other people’s stories is a very effective means of persuasion, and the experiences of others are used as pieces of information for decision-making • Social Proof experiment on pdf (35) • Liking: If you like someone, you are more likely to do what they want you to do • Effective campaigns using liking: The Tupperware parties (38 on pdf), close friends gather for the party, the party is organized by Tupperware, and friends are selling to friends • Authority/Credibility: We are much more likely to be persuaded if we perceive the source of the persuasive message to be credible or respectable (ex. Celebrities, and actors dressed in lab coats) • Authority/Credibility experiments on pdf (40) • Scarcity: An item or opportunity becomes more desirable as it becomes less available • Persuasion Strategies: -Door-in-the-face-technique: After making someone refuse a large, unreasonable request, they will be more likely to agree to a more reasonable second request. Cialdini et al. (1975) experiment in pdf (45) -Foot-in-the-door-technique: After agreeing to a small request, people are more likely to agree to a lager request than they might have been without the first small request. This works through desire for consistency. Freedman & Fraser (1966) experiment in pdf (48) -Low-balling: Inducing a customer to agree to purchase a product at a low cost, and then increasing the price at the last minute. This relies on consistency, and the product stays the same, only the price changes. Cialdini, Cacioppo, Bassett, & Miller (1978) experiment
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