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Lecture 5

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Elizabeth Page- Gould

PSYB10H3 (Fall) 201 2 Lecture 5 (10/15/12) • Social groups are divided into non-social vs. social groups -Interaction -Interdependence • Non-social groups are for example, people in a line at a store (no communication or relationships). The definition of non-social group is very grey because the circumstance can change into a social group by definition • Groups have social norms to guide behaviour • Groups have well-defined social roles (Roles/jobs/responsibilities one takes in the group) • Vary in level of group cohesiveness • Social Norm: A group’s prescriptions for the behaviour, values, and beliefs of its members -Group members are expected to conform to these norms -Members who deviate from norms are punished or rejected • “The Naked Guy” was expelled at the end, but he was a classic case for what happens when a social norm was broken • Social Roles: A group’s expectations for the behaviour and responsibilities of various subgroups of its members, applies to certain members of the group, not always all Potential costs: -Individual personality may be taken over by power of role -Violation of social roles meets with censure from other group members • 25:40, the movie for Social Roles, mock-prison, The Stanford Prison Study (guards and prisoner roles) • The roles of the participants(usually of the guards) took over their original personality PSYB10H3 (Fall) 201 2 • There is still small room for one to decide the roles to take even in situations like the prison study • Dual-roles of an experimenter is restricted or not allowed • Group Cohesiveness: The degree to which a group IS or IS PERCEIVED TO BE close knit and similar -In the minds of group members: cohesiveness promotes liking and in-group favouritism -In the minds of outsiders: cohesiveness increases stereotyping of group members • How do groups affect us? -Social facilitation and social loafing: Effects of groups on individual performance, created by an interaction of three factors (Individual Evaluation, Arousal, Task Complexity) -Social Facilitation: Tendency for performance to be: -improved when doing well-learned or dominant behaviours in the presence of others -inhibited when doing less practised or difficult tasks in the presence of others -Social Loafing: Tendency for people to perform worse on simple tasks and better on complex tasks if they are in a group and not being individually evaluated (Diffusion of performance in situations like choirs) -Individual Evaluation: concerns about being judged/evaluated -Socio-Evaluative Threat: extreme evaluation apprehension, body responds with the stress hormone (Cortisol). Cortisol constricts blood vessels in hippocampus, inhibiting memory and learning -For arousal and Task Complexity, slide 24-25 in the lecture 5 pdf -Group decision-making: -Group Polarization: Tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than the initi
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