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Lecture 3

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB10H3
Professor
Elizabeth Page- Gould
Semester
Fall

Description
PSYB10 Lecture 3 Profs Speech - Purple Slide 2 Social information - What does into person perception? o Behaviour its really your behaviour through which other people know who you are and how you think, and what youre like o Context in which you are perceiving another person affects how you interpret their behaviour o Schemas & role of expectations in how we view others Slide 3 Behavioural Input - Verbal behaviour o Scientists are not as interested in verbal behaviour because we choose what we say; think about it before we actually say it (usually) - Nonverbal behaviour o Of more interest to social psychologists because with more subtle behaviours, we may not be thinking about them before we do them (i.e. movement of face, body posture, gestures, etc.) o Emblems o Power of behavioural input: Thin Slices Slide 4 Emblems - Non-verbal Gestures that have well-understood meaning within a culture & essentially serve the purpose of words - Must be widely accepted/known in order to be considered a sort of language in itself o Effectively: nonverbal language Thumbs up means different things in different cultures - Not logos on clothing/objects - Emblems are a link between verbal and nonverbal behaviour Slide 5 Thin Slices - Developing field in psychology - An approach within social psychology focused on the attributional power of brief exposure to others o Only some things can be detected in thin slices because some traits are more expressive than others o People can be surprisingly accurate when judging/identifying characteristics in others from very quick, brief exposures o Called a thin slice because we take a thin slice of behaviour to make a broad inference of a persons personality o Socioeconomic status (income/education; status in social hierarchy) is a common trait that is often guessed through slices o Thin slices have shown to be accurate with unobservable demographic characteristics Slide 6 SES in Social Interactions - Kraus and Keltner (2009) o Results: Nave observers accurately detected parents income, mothers education, and subjective SES Mothers education tends to be more strongly correlated with SES because more men are educated (i.e. fathers education is not as helpful in detection) Subjective SES perception of your standing in the community Researchers tried to decompose behaviours of participants Relative to high SES participants, low SES participants spent less time: High SES spend more time Grooming, doodling, manipulating/playing with objects Less likely to be focused on task at hand Slide 8 Thin Slices - Can you categorize a person into an ambiguous group from their face alone? o Ambiguous social group groups we belong to that we dont know we belong to - Population accuracy for ambiguous groups is 64% o Peoples snap judgements at how moral/ethical another person is, are more accurate at predicting their ethical behaviour than judgements made after interacting with someone for 5 minutes o Maybe we tend to give people the benefit of the doubt after spending more time with them Slide 11 Context - Context matters o Context really affects attribution for what occurred/the way we interpret people o Provides additional input and in part is important because anything else we can take into account will make us more accurate judges o Can completely change attribution Slide 12 Schemas - Schemas affect our interpretation of others and our social interactions - What you expect is what you get o What you expect from another person is what you perceive from them Slide 13 Attribution - Explanation that a person will have for an observed behaviour of a social object - How automatic is attribution? o How quickly do we try to make explanations for behaviours? Very quickly - Attribution theory o Many theories of attribution which are interrelated, but distinct o Internal/external attributions o Fundamental attribution error o Covariation theory Slide 15 Ease of Attribution - Heider & Simmel (1944) o Trying to prove that humans have fundamental desire to make attributions for others behaviours; to make explanations for patterns we see - VIDEO o Shapes moving around o 100% of humans viewed the clip, which had no humans/animals, as representing a very high level social process; to understand othersSlide 16 Automaticity of Attributions - How automatic is an Attribution? Very almost instantaneously, we make explanations for behaviour - Attributions = pattern matching Slide 17 Attribution theory - As a whole, focuses on whether or not we are going to attribute a behaviour that we observe to something dispositional (about person personality, morality, background) or make an external attribution (explaining in terms of the environment) to behaviour - Primary question: o Do we attribute behaviours to something about the person (internal) or something about the situation (external)? Slide 18 Internal Attribution - Attributing a persons behaviour to something intrinsic to that person; to something about who that person is; something innate to them o Personality, disposition, attitude, or character, values, etc. o Anything consistent across situations as long as the same person is there Slide 19 External Attribution - Attributing a persons behaviour to something about the situation in which the behaviour occurred; to anything outside of the person (usually in the situation in which it occurred) o Specifically not changing beliefs regarding persons character or personality Slide 20 Correspondence Bias - Refers to person perception and attribution - Tendency to infer that a persons behaviour corresponds to their disposition, personality, or attitude, character, morals, etc. ; persons behaviour is t
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