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Lecture 4

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Elizabeth Page- Gould

PSYB10 Lecture 4 Profs Speech - Purple Slide 3 What are attitudes? - A like or dislike that influences our behaviour toward someone or something o An attitude is a belief that you hold that has a concept that is more associated with goodness or badness - Attitude object o The target of the attitude; the thing about which you hold an attitude o Can be a thing, person, place, or even idea - ABCs o Affective: what you feel about something o Behavioural: what you are likely to do o Cognitive: what you think about something Slide 5 What goes into an attitude? - Valence o Fancy term for positivity or negativity o Bipolar dimension from good to bad o Can have similar valence attitudes that have different strengths and can have strong attitudes that have different valences - Strength o Intensity of the attitude o How arousing the object is Slide 7 Explicit Attitudes - A like or dislike toward an object that is stored in the form of a statement and of which you are fully aware; attitudes that you can say in words; attitudes you are fully aware that you hold and can express in words - Explicit attitudes are propositions o A statement or assertion that expresses a judgement or opinion Oxford Dictionary - You always know what your explicit attitudes are Slide 8 Implicit Attitudes - A like or dislike toward an object stored as an association in your semantic network; association you have between something and the concept of good and bad o The association is between the object and your concepts of good and bad Things that have good implicit attitudes, we associate with goodness, and vice versa o You may or may not be aware of your implicit attitudes you might be totally aware of your implicit attitude, but you might not be Slide 9 Attitudes and Behaviour - Which comes first? - Your belief about something your behaviour in relation to that thing o Your belief about something directly affects your behaviour in relation to that thing and your behaviour in relation to something changes your believe about that thing Slide 10 Cognitive Dissonance - A change in peoples behaviour alters their attitudes - Dissonance: unpleasant feeling of tension/arousal/anxiety that you get when behaviour is different from your attitudes and values - You experience unpleasant tension (dissonance) when: o You experience contradictory attitudes i.e. you love Justin Bieber, but your best friend hates him conflict that creates tension o You behave inconsistently with your attitudes i.e. hanging out with new people who hate JB, trash talk to fit in, but still love JB - To relieve this tension: o You change your attitude to match your behaviour since you cannot change your behaviour i.e. after trash talking JB, later find that you no longer like him effect where how we act changes our behaviour and how we behave less rarely reflects what we feel or think o Or, you reappraise the situation so that your behaviour no longer indicates anything about your attitudes Much less common response/strategy Overjustification effect - Festinger & Carlsmith (1959) o Method: brought people to lab, had them do boring experiment 45 minutes of turning pegs in peg board as leaving the experiment and getting debriefed, experiment told them one of 3 things Gives them $20 to tell other participants that the experiment is fun (express an attitude that is clearly against what the participants think) Give $1 to tell other participants that the experiment is fun Control: thanks for participating o Results people who were paid $1 to lie, actually changed their attitude to be congruent with the lie, whereas $20 people, because $20 was a bigger deal than $1 (and worth much more at the time of the experiment), they only lied because they were receiving $20 Slide 16 Overjustification Effect - If one can justify an attitude-inconsistent behaviour, then they will not experience dissonant feelings and wont change attitudes Might not have behaved in accordance with how you feel you should behave, but you explain it with enough features such that you dont feel that tension and therefore you dont need to change your attitudes to reduce tensions o External appraisal for cause of dissonance - Ironic effects of overjustification o Disengagement from tasks that you genuinely enjoy if rewarded extrinsically for them Slide 17 Post-decision Dissonance - Extension of cognitive dissonance - Dissonance aroused after making a decision, typically reduced by: o Enhancing the attractiveness of the chosen alternative o Devaluing the rejected alternatives Ex: spending money on a purchase most people are satisfied, some are always wondering if they made the right choice - Brehm (1956) o Method invited housewives into lab to look at household appliances (toaster, coffeemaker, waffle iron), housewives rated each item, the researcher took each of their top 2 rated items and the participant gets to take 1 of the 2 home How will the participants attitude change toward the item they got and the item they didnt get After receiving gift rate items again looking for change in attitudes o Results mild increase in rating of items chosen for them to take home much lower rating for item they didnt get called spreading of alternatives o make a decision, but 2 things are competing in your mind as equal, and when you decide on 1, you become okay with it because you are derogating the one you choose Slide 20 Liking - liking is a subset of attitude - Positively-valenced attitude Slide 21 Balance Theory - Offshoot of cognitive dissonance - To reduce cognitive dissonance, we desire to keep a positive balance between our opinions and those of others o Answer to how people reduce dissonance when they experience it o How do we maintain attitudes to keep things in balance o Always involves the self, object/issue, and friend balance theory looks at the connection between the 3 o (View slide) like math (+) + (+) + (+) = (+), (+) + (-) + (+) = (-), (+) + (-) + (-) = (+) o Cognitive dissonance can apply when there is no other person involved o Balance theory and cognitive dissonance come into play when you ar
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