Independent self : who am i as seperate from the world
Interdependent: who you are in relation to other people.
Students in university think more about their possible selves than do others out of university.
What do we want to become.
Self discrepancy theory: the ideal self in this is different from hazel markus’s ideal self. She said
you can have different ideal selves but in the self discrepancy its about 1 self you’d like to be
like. The actual, ideal and ought self are 1 person. Doesn’t only apply to jobs when you’re older
but also characteristics, what you are, want to be and should be.
Ex ought self: when your family for your whole life wants you to be a doctor, or they want you
to be very successful.
When there is a descrepency between your actual self and ideal self there is a better rate of
depression. When there is a discrepancy between ought self and actual self better rate of
anxiety. Ex: If you don’t like science and your family wants you to become a doctor you feel
anxiety because there is so much pressure to make your family happy.
Global self esteem: during the day how good do you feel about yourself?
State self esteem: it fluctuates depending on the context. It changes on a daily basis based on
people around you, what is primed.
Implicit: represents the degree to which u associate yourself with good and bad. Has to do with
time as well.
Sociometer theory: selves as well as other groups evolve the sense of monitoring where we
stand with regards to the group to protect ourselves from being exposed and put in danger.
If you have high self esteem low rate of being rejected. If you have low self esteem rejection
rates are higher. Can’t directly test this
The need to belong is the stark variable.
Perceived regard: I wonder what you think of me?
Studies concluded that our friends like us more than we like ourselves. They think we’re better
than we think we are.
You know your friends like you more than you like yourself but you underestimate it.
Self enhancement: make people feel better about themselves and increase self esteem. We like
to enhance on a lot of things.
Social comparisons: 2 types
-upwards comparison: compare yourself to someone who is better off than you.
-downwards comparison: compare yourself to one who is worse off than you. Make yourself