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Elizabeth Page- Gould

Attitudes, persuasion, conformity and dissent Overview Attitudes and persuasion o Attitudes overview o Cognitive dissonance o Liking Balance theory o Attitude change: Persuasion and Persuasion tactics Conformity Dissent What are attitudes? A like or dislike toward someone or something A belief that you have that is more associated with goodness or badness Attitude object o The target of the attitude; the thing about which you hold an attitude o Can be a thing, person, place or even an idea ABCs: o Attitudes: what you feel about something; emotions that you associate with various objects; also an idea or belief o Behavioural: what you are likely to do, as a response of your attitude o Cognitive: that you think about something. Comes together and contribute to your attitude about something What goes into an attitude o Valence Bipolar dimension from good to bad Positivity or negativity; how good or bad you think something is o Strength Intensity of the attitude How arousing the object is Ex. when someone says they dont like the iphone for no particular reason (say they just dont like it in general)= negatively valenced, but not strong. If you ask another person that doesnt like iPhones, and they respons by saying they dont like all smartphones because they take ppl way from each other and fee very strongly about it= negatively valenced and strong; can have same level of valence, but attitude is strong o Valence and strength are 2 different dimensions. 2 attitudes can have the same level of valence, but may not be at the same level of strength. Varies independently Attitude types o Explicit attitudes A like or dislike toward an object that is stored in the form of a statement and of which you are fully aware Things you can say in words. Fully aware that you hold and easily declare and describe in words U know what your explicit attitudes are Ex. if you have a specific attitude towards Tim Hortons, and someone asked you about it, you know exactly what youd say and where you stand Explicit attitudes are propositions A statement or assertion that expresses a judgement or opinion- Oxford American College Dictionary You always know what your explicit attitudes are o Implicit attitudes A like or dislike toward an object stored as an association in your semantic network the association is between the object and your concepts of the good and bad you may or may not be aware of your implicit attitudes (because its measured in reaction times) association that you have between something and the concept between good and bad good and bad are 2 separate concepts in your semantic network. Things that we have good implicit attitudes for are associated with goodness. Things about we have bad implicit attitudes are things we associate with badness (ex. war, hunger, famine vs. flowers, peace) basically, it is simply an association that you hold between good and bad that makes something an imlplicit attitude attitudes and behaviour o which comes first o your belief about something your behaviour in relation to that thing o some of the earliest work on attitudes and behaviour was in part because of propaganda that was used during WWII (people were trying to persuade people by doing something; why did people buy more war bonds) o what you believe about something will directly affect and predict your behaviour towards that thing. Vice versa, your behaviour to that thing changes your attitudes or beliefs about it cognitive dissonance o a change in peoples behaviour alters their attitudes o dissonance: unpleasant feeling of tension (or arousal or anxiety) when your behaviour is different from your attitudes and values you experience unpleasant tension (dissonance) when: you experience contradictory attitudes (ex. you really love Justin Beiber, but your best friend hates him ( causes a conflict that can create internal tension) you behave inconsistently with your attitudes (ex. hanging out with new group of ppl that you realy want to impress. They really hate Justin Beiber, even though you love him, so infront of them you talk a lot of trash just to get their approval inconsistent behaviour with your attitude) to relieve this tension: you change your attitude since you cannot change your behaviour o change attitude to match behaviour o ex. if you continue to talk trash about Justin Beiber, after a couple of weeks, you may find that you dont like him as much as you used to. o How we act changes our behaviour, and how we behave less rarely reflects how we think or feel or, you reappraise the situation so that your behaviour no longer indicates anything about your attitudes o reappraisal always fixes everything o overjustification effect study: had people come in and do an extremely boring experiment (had to literally turn pegs on a peg board for 45 minutes). But as they are leaving experiment and being debriefed, the experimenter says one of 2 things. They mention that the ppl need to be motivated in the task for all cases (ex. say its their thesis project, etc.). in 2 out of the 3 experiments, they ask the participants to help them out. 1 condition: tells participant that they will give them 20$ if they tell the next participant in line that it was a really fun experiment. Against everyones attitudes about experiment,, but who could say no to money Condition 2: asked to lie and tell next participant that it was fun, but will be given only $1. Little bit harder to justify it for urself Condition 3: control: experimenters asked them to be motivated, but that was all. Didnt tell them to do anything. No behaviours that would be incongruent 1 week later, someone that was a part of the experiment would call back all of the participants and ask for feedback about experiment, just on curiosity o Asked to rate 0 if it was neutral, negative if it was a bad experience and positive if it was good. o Results: paid $1: they said it was quite enjoyable. Control: said it wasnt enjoyable. o $20: when you can reappraise your behaviour so that its not so inconsistent with your attituedes, you dont have as much of a change in your attitudes as a result of your behaviour. Therefore, they reasoned that even though they lied to the next person, they got $20. o But ppl who were given $1 didnt have as much that they could reappraise and say that it was other forces. It was still $1. As a result, they changed their attitudes to be congruent with the lie that they had told overjustification effect if one can justify an attitude-inconsistent behaviour, then they will not experience dissonant feelings. Dont change attitude o external appraisal for cause of dissonance o explain it based on enough features so you dont feel that same tension, therefore u dont need to change ur attitudes to rid the tension ironic effects of overjustification: o disengagement from tasks that you genuinely enjoy if rewarded extrinsically for them post-decision dissonance: dissonance aroused after making a decision, typically reduced by: enhancing the attractiveness of the chosen alternative devaluing the rejected alternatives study (1950s): got a number of house wives to come in and look at3 diff house appliances. They first rated each item based on how much they like it. Toaster was ok, but they really liked the coffee maker and waffle iron. o Were told that they can leave with one of these items, but experiemtner randomly picks 1 of the 2 highest rated items. Important because we want to see how ppls attitudes change towards th
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