Social lec 20
Group based bias
Affect : prejudice
Behavior : discrimination
Cognition : stereotyping and outgroup homegenity.
Cognitive components stereotyping: beliefs about a typical traits or characteristics or values
that you will associate with group members. They are schemas used to categorize groups.
Affective component prejudice: a hostile or negative attitude toward a distinguishable group of
people, based only on their membership in that group. your gonna be where you have some
kind of association between attitudes and behaviors based on a groups membership.
Behavioral component discrimination: unjustified negative or harmful action toward a member
of a group simply because of his or her membership in that group. These all apply only to when
you apply something to group membership alone.
-stereotypes across time: people have stereotyped across history.
Princeton trilogy: at Princeton collected racial stereotypes of 100 students. There was a high
degree of consensus among the groups. It really was the basis for studying stereotypes. For the
most part stereotypes were consistent, but they became less important as time went on. Ex: in
1933 americans #1 stereotype was that they were indoustrious, but by 1969 that moved down
to being less typical. Stereotypes are malleable. They are consistent but contextually bound.
Some things we will keep, some will change depending on current culture and whats going on
in the world
Usually stereotypes are broad and generalized. They are trait based, or based on context.
If______then_______. If you assume men are into cars and woman into house hold thing, if at
the mechanic, sally will be passive, then when picking out curtains sally will be aggressive.
Who stereotypes: most people have a knowledge of stereotyping. You know what people
generally think about a certain group. Hard to miss stereotypes. There are factors that affect
-egalitarian ideologies: a moral system based on humans are equal and should be treated
We all kind of know what cultural stereotypes are. If I prime oyu with some stereoptype it can
become more accessible in your mind. Stereotypes can be automatically activated. There is a
controlled portion where people who know they have a stereotype in their mind, they can
suppress themselves. They can reject stereotypical judgments.
-cognitive load: is a phrase we use basically when you need your mental resources to do
something. There is a greater use of cognitive resources. you can only think about certain
amount of things at a time, so the greater cognitive load, less you resources you will give to a
situation and more likely you are to stereotype. Shortcut use. When participants are under low load, they weren’t stereotyping, under cognitive load then
they rated white targets as less aggressive than blacks. (study) even among a group of people
who valued egalitarian, when cognitive resources were taken away you still saw stereotyping.
Meta-stereotypes: stereotypes about how outgroup members stereotype the ingroup. How you
see people outside your group see people in your group. I have beliefs about what people think
Consequences of stereotyping: for perceiver (person who has the psychological process) and
Outcomes for the perceiver: it allows you to move quickly through the social world. Don’t have
to think that much about the person. And you can conserve cognitive resources. bad side is you
make more judgment errors, and have selective encoding.
Selective encoding study: come to the lab for person perception exp. Read a list about 3
different targets. Basically there were a few sterotype conditions.
Stereotype present-associated with each target
Stereotype not present- no groups associated.
They asked participants to remember as many traits as they could about each target.
In absent group you see good things about the person.
In the stereotype group you see more of a trait association with stereotype.
Outcomes for target: health outcomes such as higher mortality rates, heart attacks, diastolic
blood pressure. Stereotyping can be a form of chronic stressor. On the social level, stereotype
threat and at the law enforcement level racial profiling.
-stereotype threat: the apprehension experienced by members of stereotypes groups that they
may behave in a manner that confirms the existing stereotypes. I know there is a stereotype
about my group that I may go and engage in a task or domain of that stereotype and doing so
may trigger more proof about the stereotype. Self fulfilling prophecy.
Study: get black and whites into the lab. They were gonna take a difficult task. Threat condition-
test is diagnostic of your ability. Non threat- not diagnostic of your ability.
Results: when told it would reflect ability, blacks performed worse. However on the same test,
when they said it wouldn’t reflect they black and white performed the same.
Threat affect happens when your performing in your stereotypical domain.
Complexity of stereotypical threat study: study 1 took all asian American or asian Canadian
participants and made group membership salient.
Made race salient: describing what made them a member of their race means to them
Made gender salient: what being female means to you
Student salient: what bein a student means to you.
Which identity is primed in your mind, your performance will be affected.
When primed with female identity, they performed worse (females are worse at math then
When primed with asian race performed better. (American) When primed with studen