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Social lec 22.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Kevin Page

Social lec 22 Cooperative dilemmas : situations where the most beneficial action for an individual will be harmful for the collective group. -escalation of conflict: interpersonal conflict feeds itself and escalates if one side does not begin concession. Usually conflict builds back on itself when you keep matching aggressive behavior. Somebody has to say im not going to escalate this anymore. -tragedy of the commons: a co-operative dilemma whereby you have a common set of goods that will replenish itself if it is used in moderation but disappear if overused Why do we take more than our share? When we approach the commons what is my desired share?(anchor) then you recognize that everyone needs from the good so u adjust accordingly (adjustment)but most of the time you do not adjust down sufficiently. Size of commons is not readily estimable. Its hard to estimate how much goods you have relative to the groups. We take our fair share when its easy to divide the common goods among the group. Ex: pizza, you know how many slices and people won’t take more than their fair share. -prisoners dilemma: a situation where 2 people must make a collectively dependent decision without knowing the other person’s decision. Study: the game theory- 2 people have been caught for stealing something. Brought into separate interrogating rooms and being interrogated. They don’t have full evidence. If one confesses gets parole doesn’t confess gets life. Your not sure what the other person is gonna do, what do you do. Prosocial behavior: action performed with the goal of benefiting another person. Altruism: helping done purely out of a desire to help another person. -does not benefit the self -may even involve a cost to self. Ex: stay up late to help your roommate study for exam you loose sleep but roommate aces it. When do we help: the situation can influence when we help another person(altruism) or not (bystander apathy). -mood: mood affects helping. Both good mood and bad moods increase helping relative to neutral mood. Positive mood: found money on ground, then see someone drop papers. They are more likely to help people pick up papers when they just found money. More likely to make positive attributions for peoples behave when we’re in good mood. Good moods tend to increase self awareness. Negative mood: when we feel bad we’re more likely to help. When your bummed out and you help someone else, it can make you feel better about yourself help your bummed mood. -spare time: we help less when we feel rushed for time. Study: took theology students at Princeton (studyin to be a minister). Spent 10 mins preparing a sermon on good Samaritan parabole. More hurried they were to get to sermon, less they helped someone. Ironic because of the sermon they were gonna give. -environment: urban overlaod hypothesis: urban environments constantly bombard you with stimulation so you keep to yourself to avoid being overwhelemed. Bystander apathy effect: the greater number of bystanders who witness an emergency the less likely that any one of them is to help. You are more likely to help when alone. Why is this so? Pluralistic ignorance: bystanders assume that nothing is wrong in an emergency because no one else looks concerned. We don’t wanna freak out when something is not an emergency. When other people are around everyone looks to everyone else
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