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Lecture 8

Psyb10h3 2012 november 05,12,19 lecture 8+9+ 10--detailed class notes.docx

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Elizabeth Page- Gould

PsyB10H3 2012-11-05 Lecture 8 Week 9 Culture, social power and Hierarchy Overview: all this weeks reading is supplemental; the review article which the lecture is more based on; - Defining culture - Describing cultures - Social psychology of cultures - Moving between cultures Defining culture - What is cultures ? - Why should we care? - What is culture? o Define: An ever-changing, constructive stimulus which shapes the way individuals perceive and contribute to the world 1. Dynamic: it always changing, the culture you are experiencing is different what your parents experience 2. Influenced by members of the Culture: at a fundamental level; the current group affect the identity of culture 3. Influences members of the Culture: we all situational within; o Nationality: usually in the cross cultural study The country you were born in o Ethnicity: within the national, some are newer or older; Your cultural heritage It is different from race, which refer to a greater group of ppl, in which we only have a few in the world; o Identification The degree to which you include group membership in your self-concept or sense of who you are Not because you are a part of an ethnicity identifies who you are but more like how you understand it identifies who you are o Meaning system: By which, we draw Symbols, language, experiences and understanding ourselves Metaphysics metaphysical explanations Beliefs about the world, universe, and existence o Like religious traditions to identify o Culture provide the understanding that why we are here? For what? Describing cultures - Individualism/collectivism - Political climate - Religious beliefs - Econological difference - Individualist cultures o Emphasize personal achievement, even at the expense s of others o Greater emphasis on competition o Eg. Canada, Western Europemore likely considered coming from the Greek Traditions The picture of fish in the slide: why the fish swimming in front of other fishes? Individualism culture: he is the leader, and other fishes are following The colleecitve : the group as whole - Collectivism o Emphasize social roles, and collective responsibslityies even at the expense of the individual o Greater emphasis on cooperation o Eg: china, Korea, Latin America Example of Japan: very high collective culture and also very high in individualism; highest than US; So that we do have culture that value the both concepts; - Political climate o Political structure greatly constrains behaviour and cultural expression o Sometimes government change can extinguish a culture The example of culture revolution of China; Grovernmetn have a great deal of power in shaping the power - Religious beliefs: o Dominant religious beliefs characterize a cultures moral reasoning and motivations Islam is the largest religion in the world; covering hair in same religion but show different patterns in different cultures So that the culture matters in same religion o Religion also affects social roles and norms - Ecological diffrenrce o Environmental context shapes the development and focus of a cultures Ex: in Canada there are different words in addressing snow To think about what is the important for them to identify thses and to live their lives Social psych Language-Related Methodological Issues - Is the meaning of our words lost in translation when we translate from one language to another? o It is more complicated here than ppls thought - Lost in translation: o Maybe-so eveidence Method: 1. Participants (Ps) who spoke Argentinean-Spanish, Chinese, or English 2. Showed Ps an array of objects o You see the things in the pictures 3. What world would P use for each object? Results: # of words used for pictured objects by clutres Argentinian-spanish English Chinese 15 5 7 Chinese term applied to all objects but translated into jar in English o Maybe-not evidence Method: particpanst who spoke Argentinean-spanish, Chinese or English Showed Ps the same array of objects Asked Ps to group objects according to similarity Results: speakers of all three languages arranged the objects in to the same groups o Conclusion While we may call objects by different names, we group them similarly - Back translation: translating a word, phrase, or sentence multiple times between two languages until both translations yield the same phrase o Process: 1. Translate from Language 1 to Language 2 2. Translate from Language 2 to Language 1 3. Repeat until all discrepancies have been fixed How does culture affect us? - Cognition/Perception o Cognitive Framing o Dialectical vs. Linear Reasoning - Affect o Emotional Complexity - Behaviour o Social Roles & Norms - Cognitive framing: the perceptual framework through which you view the world o Affects the attributions made for events o Cultural Primes (Hong, Chiu, Kung, 1997) Priming someone with a familiar icon of their culture will temporarily increase their identification with that culture Method: Prime Chinese participants with Chinese Icons (100 ms) versus wertern icons Results: observed greater endorsement of traditional Chinese values after Chinese cultural primes Our culture shape the way we interpt the world; - Dialectical Thinking o A cognitive reasoning structure through which an individual interprets the environemtn o 3 principles 3 core components Change: everything is in flux/constantly changingnothing stays; you could never state the same twice Contradiction: opposing propositions may both be true If you are dialectical thinker, contradiction does not matter you We experience two different/contradict thinkings are both true; but the linean thinkers may think it is impossible Wholism : everything is interrelated/interdependent This explain the second concept; As a whole, each individual part is There may be a greater structure understanding could explain these situations These are the ppl value and believe the contradictions happens all the time; Most ppl are somewhere in between Mostly, eastern culture are more dialectical thinker; but within the great culture, there are great diversities; So that on average, there more dialectical thinker in China than in US o Peng and Nisbett (1999) Method: Compare proverbs from China and US Look at degree of linearity or dialecticism in proverb: o Eg., Linear Thinking: For example is no proof If this, than that A is to B, and C is to B It is more about associated o Dialectical Thinking: Beware of your friends, not your enemies Results: Chinese had four times as many dialectical proverbs as Americans Preferences: o Americans preferred linear to dialectical American proverbs o Chinese preferred dialectical to linear Chinese proverbs o ****Chinese also preferred dialectical to linear Yiddish proverbs - Emotional complexity: o The experience of many emotions at the s
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