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Lecture 1

PSYB20H3 Lecture 1: PSYB20 Lec 1

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Elizabeth Page- Gould

PSYB20 September 3 , 2014 Lecture 1 Developmental Psychology Prof: Diane Mangalindan Email: [email protected] Course requirements • First term test: • Sept 24 in class o 30% • Oct 29 in class o 30% • Final exam- Dec o 40% Development vs child development • Field of study that tries to account fo rhte changes that happen across a person’s lifetime o Child development looks at changes happening in childhood o In both cases they outline changes that happen in all aspects of developmetn ▪ Physical, cognitive, emotional, and social capacities ▪ Researchers trie to describe or outline the changes that happen in development ▪ Try to figure out the processess that underly these changes ▪ The scientific study of child psyhcology is fairly new ▪ Started with work of charles darwin • First to show that children can be scientifically examined ▪ Why it didn’t’ start earlier? • Appreciation of childhood as important to development is relatively new • Children were not as valued before as they are now due to lack of knowledge of diseases children died in first few months of helt Philippe Aries • French historian • Published centuries of childhood • First persont to publisha book aobut his time of development • According to him people’s attitude about children are progressive and these changes occur with changes in society and economy o Children less valued because of short life expectancy PSYB20 September 3 , 2014 Lecture 1 Children in 18 century • Due to short life expectancy they were treated as miniature adults and worked labour such as adults did • In the middle ages childhood wasn’t considered • Since Philippes book people have seen childhood as an important aspect of development and lead to more scientific studies Major themes in child development • Different issues have arisen in child development Continuous vs discontinuous • Some argue development is continuous o Series of quantitative changes in capacities, behaviours and skills children develop • Others see it as discontinuous process that happen in step by step changes with different capacities or skills at different stages o Can move backwards, abrupt changes • Today we have a different perspective o Whether you see development as continuous or discontinuous matters on the perspective you take on development • Some transitions are biological o E.g., neurological reorganization • Can also be environmentally induced o Divorce, other changes in parental caring strategies Nature vs Nurture • Biological and environmental factors are both important, but importance placed on each of these factors are different • Today, contemporary developmental psychologists take on a balance between the two o Less on importance of one or the other but rather about how they interact with one another Passive vs active child • Early researchers believed child is passive participant of development o Product of forces or factors eternal to them o Whether a child is shy or sociable due to parental practices or biological predispositions • Contemporary evelopmental psychologist see child as active participants o They absorb an dask questions, they can impact behaviour of people around them, can agre, disagree, etc PSYB20 September 3 , 2014 Lecture 1 Person vs. Situation • Contextual factors • Researchers disagree on importantce of context in which children are raised vs importance of how the person is dictates how they behave in a situation • Some believe the person is important o Shy child will be shy regardless of context they are in (home, school, work) • Other reasearchers argue that situational factors are important o Depending ont he situation a person is faced with determines how they behave ▪ Child would be shy in new unfamiliar contests but more sociabl e at familiar settings like home • We argue now that it’s both the situation and person are both important o Aggressive child will seek out aggressive situations (will join martial arts or physical sports teams rather than a church choir) Universal vs. Relativism • Some reasearchers argue Certani developmental aspects are true everywhere o Language development o In any culture a baby at 6 mos would start babbling and around 12-18 mos they would start babbling • Others argue that culture is important o Child raised in NYC less likely to learn hunting thatn one in the Kalahari deseart o And a child raised in the arctic will be less likely need ot know about computer skills • Some research has shown that some cultural practices lead to accelerated or delayed onset of certain milestones o E.g., locomotion ▪ Sitting ritual • Placed in a special hole in the floor that supports their back that causes them to sit up earlier ▪ East asian parents less likely to place infants on floor for fee play (held more) less motor exploration ▪ North American parents put infants to sleep on their backs instead of stomachs that delay crawling ▪ Other cultures will ignore crawling (bum shuffle, or go straight to walking) o NOTE: All would learn independant walking at the same time Theory What art Thou? General vs scientific theory PSYB20 September 3 , 2014 Lecture 1 • Theory is a ste of concepts that describe and explain an aspect of experience or pehenomenon • Scientific theory is A scientist’s public statement that accounting for a specific area of his or her study. • Both involve psychological changes or development over time • Dual purpose o First purpose: to be able to integrate and structure existing information about things we know about at opic of interest into a coherent account o Second purpose: to generate perdictions or hypotheses for ust to test regarding child behaviour o Any scientific theory however, must be a good theory in order to fulfill that purpose What make aa good scientific theory? • Three charactistics o Parsimony ▪ The simplest explanation is best ▪ Occam’s razor o Falsifiability ▪ A theory should be able to be tested and be proven false o Heuristic value ▪ We should be able to apply it to new situations even if you don’t know exactly what’s happening • E.g. theory of aggression that could be applied for children and adults o Two diff groups but both referring to underlying aspects then it should be true regardless of group being measured • In any field of study there is no single theory that can account for everything we know o Most theories explain very minor aspects of psychology Major theoretical perspectives Psychoanalyic Theory • Sigmund freud • Personalit= id+ego+superego o Id operates on pleasure principle ▪ Maximizes pleasure ▪ Drives o Ego tries to satisfy needs in sociaily acceptable manner PSYB20 September 3 , 2014 Lecture 1 o Superego is essentially conscious • Development occurs in 5 (psychosexual) stages o Oral stage (birth- 1 year) ▪ Everything goes in teh child’s mouth o Anal stage (1-3) ▪ Child engages in potty raining ▪ Child beginning to learn they cannot go whenever and wherever they want to ▪ Need to restrain themselves to the place where they need to be done ▪ Control instinctual urges o Phallic stage (3-6) ▪ Sexual urges emerge ▪ Children learn differences in gender ▪ Children develop complexes where sexual urges are misplaced • Boys-Oedipus complex: they are attracted ot their mother • Girls-Electra complex: they are attracted to their father • Complexes can be overcome if the boy identifies with father and girl with her mother o Latency stage (6-12) ▪ Sexual urges repressed ▪ Children focus on interaction with same-sex peers ▪ Learn about friendship and concern for other people o Genital stage (>12) ▪ Re-emergence of sexual urges ▪ But they can be targeted to the appropriate group: their peers ▪ Need for reproduction arises Behaviourism • Environment plays key role in development • James Watson (NOT John) o INtrodued classical conditioning o Learning from repeated presentation of familiar and unfamiliar stimuli ▪ They are presented together o Influenced by Pavlovian experiments o Little Albert Experiment ▪ Presented white rat and loud noise ▪ Natural reaction ot loud noise is fear, and due to the exposure of both together, the child became fearful of the rat and other furry things as well, even when they were not presented with the loud noise PSYB20 September 3 , 2014 Lecture 1 • B.F. Skinner o Operant conditioning ▪ Behaviour influenced by what happens after, not before • Rewards and punishments • Focused on consequences o With children, encourage good behaviour with rewards and praise and deiscourage bad behaviour with reprimanding and unhappiness and punishments • Albert Bandura o Cognitive social learning theory ▪ Modeling and observational learning
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