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PSYB20H3 (70)

Chapter 8—Intelligence

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Ella Daniel

Chapter 8—Intelligence Introduction • The psychometric approach to cognitive development is the basis for the wide variety of intelligence tests available for assessing children’s mental abilities • Largely concerned with outcomes and results as opposed to processes Definitions of Intelligence • Is intelligence a single capacity or a collection of loosely related skills? Alfred Binet:AHolistic View • Educators sought methods to identify students who were unable to benefit from regular classroom instructions—first successful intelligence test byAlfred Binet and Theodore Simon responded to this need • French Ministry of Instruction asked Binet to devise an objective method for assigning pupils to special classes—one based on mental ability, not classroom disruptiveness • Binet and Simon devised a test of general ability that included a variety of verbal and nonverbal items, each requiring thought and judgment • He believed test items should tap complex mental activities involved in intelligent behaviour • First test to associate items of increasing difficulty with chronological age--Tests were able to estimate how much a child was behind or ahead of their age mates in intellectual development • In 1916, Lewis Terman at Stanford University adapted it for use with English-speaking schoolchildren • English version known as the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale The Factor Analysts:Amultifaceted View • Factor analysis is a complicated Correlational procedure, which identifies sets of test items that cluster together, meaning that test-takers who do well on one item in a cluster tend to do well on the others—distinct clusters are called factors • Early factor analysts • Charles Spearman was the first influential factor analyst • He found that all test items he examined correlated with one another • As a result, he proposed that a common underlying general intelligence, called g, influences each of them • At the same time, noticing that the test items were not perfectly correlated • Concluded that they varied in the extent to which g contributed to them and suggested that each item, or a set of similar items, also measured a specific intelligence unique to the task • Downplayed the significance of specific intelligences, regarding g as central and supreme • g represents abstract reasoning capacity • Thurstone—scores on more than 50 intelligence tests indicated that separate, unrelated factors exist-–declaring the supremacy of these factors—he called these primary mental abilities • Contemporary extensions • Spearman and Thurstone eventually resolved their differences, and acknowledged findings that supported the other’s perspective • Hierarchical models of mental abilities—at the highest level is g, assumed to be present to some degree in all separate factors, these factors in turn, are measured by subtests. Groups of related items • Subtest scores provide information about a child’s strengths and weaknesses—can also be combined into a total score representing general intelligence • Crystallized vs. fluid intelligence • Raymond B. Cattall, in addition to g, intelligence consists of two broad • Crystallized intelligence refers to skills that depend on accumulated knowledge and experience, good judgment, and mastery of social customs—abilities acquired because they are valued by the individual’s culture • Fluid intelligence depends more heavily on basic information-processing skills—the ability to detect relationships among stimuli, the speed with which the individual can analyze information, and the capacity of working memory • Fluid intelligence, which is assumed to be influenced more by conditions in the brain and less by culture, often works with crystallized intelligence to support effective reasoning, abstraction, and problem solving • Children high in fluid intelligence acquire information more easily • Tests aimed at reducing culturally specific content usually emphasize fluid over crystallized items • The three-stratum theory of intelligence • John Carroll’s findings yielding a three-stratum theory of intelligence that elaborates the models proposed by Spearman, Thurstone, and Cattell • Carol represented the structure of intelligence as having three tiers—g presides at the top, in the second tier are an array of broad abilities (basic biological components of intelligence), in the third tier are narrow abilities, specific behaviours through which people display the second-tier factors • Useful framework for researchers seeking to understand mental-test performance in cognitive-processing terms Recent Advances in Defining Intelligence • Many researchers believe that factors on intelligence tests have limited usefulness unless we can identify the cognitive processes responsible for those factors Combining Psychometric and Information-ProcessingApproach • Componential analyses of children’s test scores, looking for relationships between aspects (or components) of information processing and children’s intelligence test performance • Processing speed, measured in terms of reaction time on diverse cognitive tasks, is moderately related to general intelligence and to gains in mental test performance over time • Children whose central nervous system function more efficiently, permitting them to take in and manipulate information quickly, appear to have an edge in intellectual skills • Metabolic rate of the cerebral cortex is lower for high-scoring individuals, suggesting that they require less mental energy for thinking • Shortcoming: it regards intelligence as entirely due to causes within the child, when we know that cultural and situational factors also affect children’s thinking Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory • Triarchic theory of successful intelligence is made up of three broad, interacting intelligences: (1) analytical intelligence, or information-processing skills, (2) creative intelligence, the capacity to solve novel problems, and (3) practical intelligence, application of intellectual skills in everyday situations • Intelligent behaviour involves balancing one’s personal goals and the requirements of one’s cultural community • Analytical intelligence • Information processing components that underlie all intelligent acts: applying strategies, acquiring task-relevant n=and meta-cognitive knowledge, and engaging in self-regulation • Creative intelligence • Generating useful solutions to new problems; creative people think more skillfully than others when faced with novelty • Practical intelligence • Goal-oriented activity aimed at adapting to, shaping, or selecting environments • Intelligent people adapt their thinking to fit with both their desires and the demands of their everyday worlds • When they can’t adapt to a situation, they try to shape, or change it to meet their needs • If they cannot shape it, they select new contexts that better match their skills, values and goals • Mental tests can easily underestimate, and even overlook, the intellectual strengths of some children, especially ethnic minorities Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences • Defines intelligence in terms of distinct sets of processing operations that permit individuals to solve problems, create products, and discover new knowledge in a wide range of culturally valued activities • Gardner proposes at least 8 independent intelligences • Each intelligence has a unique biological basis, a distinct course of development, and different expert, or “end-state” performances • Alengthy process of education is required to transform any raw potential into a mature social role • Individuals with savant syndrome, who display one area of outstanding strength, alongside deficits in many others, provide an illustration for the separateness of abilities –often associated with left cerebral hemisphere, which may have caused the right hemisphere to compensate, yielding an “island of strength” • Gardner accepts the existence of innately specified, core domains of thought, present at birth or emerging early in life • Then, as children respond to the demands of their culture, they transform those intelligences to fit the activities they are called on to perform • Criticism: excellence in most fields requires a combination of intelligences Intelligence Processing Operations End-state performance possibilities Linguistic Sensitivity to the sounds, rhythms, and meanings of words and the function of language Poet, journalist Logico-mathematical Sensitivity to, and capacity to detect, logical or numerical patterns; ability to handle long chains of logical reasoning Mathematician Musical Ability to produce and appreciate pitch, rhythm (or melody), and aesthetic quality of the forms of musical expressiveness Instrumentalist, composer Spatial Ability to perceive the visual-spatial world accurately, to perform transformations on those perceptions, and to re-create aspects of visual experience in the absence of relevant stimuli Sculptor, navigator Bodily-kinesthetic Ability to use the body skillfully for expressive as well as goal-directed purposes; ability to handle objects skillfully Dancer, athlete Naturalist Ability to recognize and classify all varieties of animals, minerals, and plants Biologist Interpersonal Ability to detect and respond appropriately to the moods, temperaments, motivations, and intentions of others Therapist, salesperson Intrapersonal Ability to discriminate complex inner feelings and to sue them to guide one’s own behaviour; knowledge of one’s own strengths, weaknesses, desires and intelligences Person with detail, accurate self-knowledge Measuring Intelligence • Scores on intelligence tests are modest to good predictors of future success —in school, on the job, and in other aspects of life • Group-administered tests—given from time to time in classrooms, permitting large numbers of students to be tested at once—are useful for instructional planning and for identifying students who require more extensive evaluation with individually administered tests • Individually administered tests demand considerable training and experience to give well—observer considers the child’s answers and observes their behaviour Social Issues: Education • Emotional intelligence: a set of emotional abilities that enable individuals to process and adapt to emotional information. • To measure it, researchers have devised items tapping emotional skills that enable people to manage their own emotions and interact competently with others • Emotional intelligence is positively associated with self-esteem, empathy, Prosocial behaviour, cooperation, leadership skills, and life satisfaction • Emotional intelligence is negatively related to drug or alcohol use, depression, aggressive behaviour Some commonly used intelligence tests • The Standford-Binet Intelligence Scales • For individuals from age 2 to adulthood • Measures general intelligence and five intellectual factors: fluid reasoning, quantitative reasoning, knowledge, visual-spatial processing, and working memory • Each factor includes a verbal and non-verbal mode of testing • Knowledge and quantitative reasoning factors emphasize crystallized intelligence whereas the fluid reasoning, visual-spatial processing, and working-memory factors tap fluid intelligence • The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales for Early Childhood for 2-7 year olds is useful for diagnosing intellectual difficulties in early childhood • The Weshcler Intelligence Scale for Children • Used for 6 through 16 year olds • Offered both a measure of general intelligence and a variety of factor scores long before the Standford-Binet • Includes four broad intellectual factors: verbal reasoning, perceptual reasoning, working memory, and processing spatial • Designed to downplay crystallized, culture-dependent intelligence, which emphasized on only one factor (verbal reasoning)—remaining three focus on information-processing skills Aptitude and Achievement Tests • Aptitude tests assess an individual’s potential to learn a specialized activity —ex. ScholasticAssessment test • Achievement tests aim to assess actual knowledge and skill attainment— ex. final exams • Most tests tap both aptitude and achievement, though in different balances • Intelligence tests assess the widest array of skills—aptitude tests are narrower, focusing on particular skills—achievement tests cover the narrowest range because they are aimed at measuring recent learning, usually in particular school subjects Tests for Infants • Presenting infants with stimuli, coaxing them to respond and observing their behaviour is the only way to test their intelligence • Some tests depend on information supplied by parents • Most measures emphasize perceptual and motor responses • Bayley 3 has three main subsets: the cognitive scale, the language scale, and the motor scale, and then two additional which depend on parental report: the social- emotional scale and the adaptive behaviour scale • Infants and toddlers easily become distracted, fatigued, or bored during testing, so their scores often do not reflect their true abilities • Because most infant scores do not tap the same dimensions of intelligence assessed in older children, they are conservatively labeled developmental quotients (DQs) rather than IQs • Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence—consists of habituation/recovery items – unreliable and inconsistent as babies differ outside of laboratory condition Computation and Distribution of IQ Scores • Intelligence tests for infants, children and adults are scored in the same way—by computing an Intelligence quotient (IQ), which indicates the extent to which the raw score (number of items passed) deviates from the typical performance of same- age individuals • Standardization—giving the test to a large, representative sample and using the results as the standard for interpreting success • Normal distribution—scores at each level form this, most scores cluster around the mean, or average, with progressively fewer falling toward each extreme • The bell-shaped distribution results whenever researchers measure individual differences in large samples • When intelligence tests are standardized, the mean IQ is set at 100—an individual’s IQ is higher or lower than 100 by an amount that reflects how much their performance deviates from the standardization-sample mean • Usually people fall between 70 and 130; only a few have higher or lower What Do Intelligence Tests Predict, and How Well? Stability of IQ Scores • Stability refers to how effectively IQ at one age predicts itself at the next • Correlation stability • Correlate scores obtained at different ages • The older the child at time of first testing, the better the prediction of later IQ • After age 6, stability improves • The closer in time two testing’s are, the stronger the relationship between the scores • With age, test items focus less on concrete knowledge and more on complex reasoning and problem solving, which require different skills • During periods of rapid development, children frequently change places in a distribution • IQ may become more stable after schooling is under way because daily classroom activities and test items become increasingly similar • Stability of absolute scores • Stability can also be viewed in absolute terms—by examining a child’s profile of IQ scores over repeated testing’s • Longitudinal research reveals that the majority of children
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