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Psychology (7,785)
PSYB20H3 (70)


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Ella Daniel

Chapter 11- Self and Social Understanding  Social-cognitive development proceeds from concrete to abstract.  It becomes better organized with age.  Children are able to revise the cause of the behavior from simple to complex explanations. Emergence of Self and Development of Self Concept Self-Awareness  Beginning of self awareness o Newborn show a stronger response to other’s touching their face rather than themselves touching their face- showing signs of understanding physical distinction. o Intermodal perception: supports the beginnings of self-awareness. o When shown a video to babies of themselves kicking- one from their view and one from the observer’s view, babies looked longer at the observer’s view. -3M o In another video, they looked longer at the reversed legs than at their own view.-3M o Implicit sense of self- world differentiation- being able to differentiate that your own limbs and expressions are different than those around. o Explicit self-awareness: an objective understanding that the self is a unique object in a world of objects.  Explicit self-awareness o Infants older than 20 months had self-awareness of their facial appearance. o Self-recognition—identification of the self as a physically unique being- around age 2. o Around age 3- recognize the self-shadow. o 18-21 months are able to construct an explicit body of self-awareness. – Realizing the necessity to move from the carpet, to move the cart. o They make scale errors, attempting to do things that their body size makes impossible.  Trying to fit self in to a doll’s chair.  Start to decline around age 2  Influence on self-awareness o Sensitive caregiving plays a role in how infants acquire explicit self-awareness. o 18-month-olds who often establish joint attention with their caregivers are advanced in mirror self-recognition. o Through joint attention toddlers have opportunities to compare their own and others’ reactions to objects and events, which may enhance their awareness of their own physical uniqueness. o German and Greek toddlers -> attain mirror self-recognition earlier than toddlers of Nso people. o Nso people -> values social harmony and responsibility to others. They engage in less face-to-face communication and more body contact. o German and Greek -> value distal parenting style and independence. o Nso people -> value proximal parenting style and interdependence. o In conclusion, Nso people have later attainment of self-development but earlier compliance with adult’s requests.  Mirror self-awareness precedes sustained, mutual peer imitation—a partner banging an object, the toddler copying the behavior, the partner imitating back, and the toddler copying again. The Categorical, Remembered and Enduring Selves  Language becomes a tool in self-development because it lets children represent and express themselves more clearly.  Between 18 and 30 months, children construct a categorical self as they classify themselves and others on the basis of perceptually distinct attributes and behaviors— age (“baby,” “boy,” or “man”), gender, and physical characteristics (“big,” “strong”).  Adult–child conversations about the past lead to an autobiographical memory. This life-story narrative grants the child a remembered self.  Enduring self—a view of themselves as persisting over time.- age 4. The Inner Self: Children’s Theory of Mind  As children think more about themselves and others, they form the naïve theory of mind- a coherent understanding of their own and others’ rich mental lives.  After age 2 they are aware of an inner self of private thoughts and imaginings.  Children’s developing theory of mind contributes vitally to perspective taking— the capacity to imagine what others may be thinking and feeling and to distinguish those viewpoints from one’s own.  18-month-olds can take into account differences in food preferences using another’s emotional expression- but when the task becomes difficult like picking a gift; even 2-3 year olds cannot compete the task.  Infant’s understandings are limited to desire theory of mind: They think that people always act in ways consistent with their desires and do not realize that less obvious, more interpretive mental states, such as beliefs, also affect behavior.  After age 4 -> belief–desire theory of mind, a more advanced view in which both beliefs and desires determine actions.  False beliefs—ones that do not represent reality accurately. o Becomes more secure around the ages of 4-6.  Lack of perceptual access leads to not knowing—that a person who hasn’t seen the contents of a particular container can’t know what’s in it and, therefore, will be mistaken.  People can increase their knowledge by making mental inferences.  Second order belief requires the ability to view a situation from at least two perspectives—that is, to reason simultaneously about what two or more people are thinking, a form of perspective taking called recursive thought.  Not until age 7-8 do children explain how people’s prior beliefs might affect their viewpoints.  Language, executive function, make-believe play, and social experiences all contribute to a child’s development in theory of mind.  Language and verbal reasoning o Prefrontal cortex plays a crucial role- child who passes the false belief task show activity in left prefrontal cortex. o Children who use more complex words are likely to pass false belief tests earlier. o Quechea children have difficulty with false belief tasks.  Executive function o Ability to inhibit inappropriate responses, think flexibly, and plan—predict current performance on false-belief tasks as well as improvements over time. Self Concept  Self- concept: the set of attributes, abilities, attitudes and values that and individual believes defines who she or he is.  Early childhood o Preschoolers’ self-concepts largely consist of observable characteristics, such as their name, physical appearance, possessions, and everyday behaviors  Children withAutism: o Have limited ability to engage in behaviors (eye gaze, facial expressions), his language was delayed, and engaged in less make-believe play. o They show reduced activity in the cerebral cortex involved in processing emotional and social information.  Middle childhood o Social comparisons—judgments of their own appearance, abilities, and behavior in relation to those of others. o Children 4-6 can only compare themselves to one individual, whereas older children can compare themselves to their friends or group of people.  Adolescence o They create different selves for different situations- leading them to question who they really are. o Compared with school-age children, teenagers place more emphasis on social virtues, such as being friendly, considerate, kind, and cooperative—traits that reflect adolescents’ increasing concern with being viewed positively by others. o Among older adolescents, personal and moral values also emerge as key themes. Cognitive, Social, and Cultural Influences on Self Concept  The self is a generalized other—a blend of what we imagine important people in our lives think of us. o Perspective taking skills are crucial for development of self-concept based on personality traits.  When asked to recall personally significant past experiences, U.S. children gave longer accounts including more personal preferences, skills, and opinions. Chinese children, in contrast, more often referred to social inter- actions and to others. Similarly, in their self-descriptions, U.S. children listed more personal attributes (“I’m smart,” “I like hockey”), Chinese children more attributes involving group membership and relationships (“I belong to the Lee family,” “I’m in second grade,”).  Japanese children attribute considerably greater knowledge to parents and teachers thanAmerican children do. Self Esteem: The Evaluative side of Self-Concept  Self-esteem, the judgments we make about our own worth and the feelings associated with those judgments. o High self-esteem: a realistic evaluation of the self, and an attitude of self-acceptance and self-respect. The Structure of Self-Esteem  The structure of self-esteem depends on evaluative information available to children and their ability to process that information. Changes in the Level of Self- Esteem: The Role of Social Comparisons  Self-esteem declines over the fir
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