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Lecture 3

Week 3

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Marc A Fournier

Week 3 Lecture: Gender, Society, & Culture Overview of Week 3 Lectures Part I. Social Learning Part II. Gender Socialization Part III. Societal Division of Labor Overview of Part I Early Behaviorism & Learning Banduras Theory of Social Learning The Five Fundamental Human Capabilities Behaviorism rises as a response to psychoanalysis The appealing thing about the behaviorist approach is parsimony Classical Conditioning John B. Watson (1878-1958): UCS UCR CS CR o Watson applied Pavlovian techniques to a 9-month old child (Little Albert) to demonstrate that a complex emotional response (fear) could be learned through the principles of classical conditioning. Much of behaviorists tradition can be traced back to Watson His important observation was that there are stimuli in the world that reflexively produce responses in organisms; referred to these stimuli as unconditioned stimuli An unconditioned stimulus (UCS) is any event that automatically brings about a particular response; this response is referred to as a unconditioned response (UCR) Ex: puff of air to the eye o Puff of air = UCS bc is has an automatic association with a UCR (will automatically blink) These responses occur without any prior exposure to the stimulus Early behaviourist learning theorists observation was that new stimuli could be paired with UCS and through their repeated pairing they can come to acquire the ability to elicit a response similar to the UCR o This CS over time will acquire the ability to get a CR; the CR will resemble the UCR o Ex: Sounding a bell before blowing in the eye; repeated many times; person blinks; after awhile the person will blink when they hear the bell even before the air is blown into the eye o Only after a series of learning trials during which the stimulus is associated with an UCS that it becomes CS eliciting the CR Instrumental Conditioning B. F. Skinner (1904-1990): o Extended Watsons behaviorism beyond the level of Pavlovian conditioning into the more complex arena of voluntary behavior o Thorndikes Law of Effectthe effect produced by a behavior determines the behaviors future probability of occurrence o Introduced the concepts of reinforcement, punishment, and shaping Reinforcement those stimuli that increase the behaviour; Ex: rewards are stimuli that increase the probability of the behaviour that produced it; they can also come in the form of relief bc a bad thing has taken away; can increase a behaviour bc it eliminates a bad thing from happening (negative reinforcement) Punishment stimuli that decrease the probability of a behaviour response Shaping the process of producing a behavioural response by rewarding successively close approximations of it; the behaviour that the individual would be learning was complicated so every time the person performed close approximations of it, they were rewarded; in doing so it help shape the behaviour to the desired state It was Skinners observation that not all behaviour is reflexive; it is often very difficult to understand the stimulus that is driving the behaviour Ex: Toddler comes into a room unsupervised; sees a bookshelf and tries to climb it; what stimulus caused the toddler to climb? o Skinners contention is that there is no stimulus in that situation; rather the presence of the bookshelf gave the toddler the opportunity to climb; then if the toddler falls off then that experience makes the toddler less inclined to climb a bookshelf again This is an operant approach to learning; learning through consequences If the consequence are positive, it increases the likelihood of behaving that way in the future If they are negative, it decreases the likelihood of behaving that way in future The Early Behaviorists
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