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Lecture 3

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Connie Boudens

PSYB30 – Lecture 3 Purple Text – Prof’s Speech Traits Part II The Big Five +?  Are the big 5 enough?  Some researchers suggest that there are additional factors that should be considered  Honesty-Humility?  But some say this is already an Introverted component of agreeableness  Intelligence?  Some say it is Conceptually like openness, which has to do with being interested in the world and taking in knowledge, or conscientiousness  Loads on conscientiousness  Where intelligence falls depends on how you define it  Spiritual transcendence / religiosity  May be separate from Big 5  Has to do with understanding the big picture  Sexuality?  Attractiveness, exclusivity, restraint, orientation etc.  Research seems to show an Overlap w/ Big 5 Is the FFM (Five Factor Model) Universal?  There is a possibility that the FFM is an Artifact of development with WEIRD participants  Key Problem: Derived in English using lexical approach  Assumes other languages will have words for same ideas  The Big 5 has been Validated in over 50 countries  Indigenous measures (measures used using the language of interest) get similar results except:  Extraversion and agreeableness are not always distinct  The concept of Openness varies – it is defined differently in different cultures  Unique traits in some cultures  Ex. Filial piety in China – which has to do with respect for elders, experience, etc.  More than 5 traits needed in some cultures - Reliability of FFM lower in less developed countries – found consistently  Potential reasons:  Translations  Item relevance  Familiarity with test format  Representative samples FFM in Tsimane culture (Gerven, von Rueden, Massenkoff, Kaplan, & Lero Vie, 2012)  Used translated version of FFM – in Spanish  Factor analysis showed 2 factors  Combo off Extroversion and Agreeableness (prosociality?)  Industriousness Personality in Everyday Life Meta-analysis of the relationship btw Big 5 traits and leadership (Judge, Bono, Ilies, & Gerhardt, 2002)  Meta-analysis: technique for combining findings from studies; type of research technique where you find all studies on a particular topic and put together data of all studies and treat them as if they came from one  Extroversion most consistent correlate of leadership  Followed by Conscientiousness, Openness, and Neuroticism (-)  Neuroticism – negatively correlated, the less neurotic you are, the more likely you are to display leadership behaviour  Agreeableness had very low correlation with leadership Career/work  Personality testing often used in HR  MBTI common measure of match btw people and work  Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Jung‟s Psychological Types • 2 basic attitudes towards the world: introversion – extroversion • 4 psychological functions • thinking – feeling • sensation – intuition • 8 psychological types • Jung originally coined the terms intro and extroverted • Introversion: draws energy from within selves • Focus on inner world of thought, ideas • Can only spend a limited amount of time with people • Extroversion: get energy from the environment • Focus on people, things outside the self The Four Functions  Thinking and Feeling  Relate to how someone makes decisions or judgements  „Thinking‟ people – make decisions using logic, reason, principles  „Feeling‟ people – make decisions using emotions, personal values  Continuum – few people will be far on either end  Sensation and Intuition o ways of getting information about the world o How you draw information about things going on around you o Sensation – through the senses, focus on details o Intuition – through “sixth sense”, focus on big picture The eight psychological types • introverted thinking • interesting in ideas and inner reality • not that interested in other people • introverted feeling • superficially reserved – seems to be quite reserved, but not actually • sympathetic and understanding of close friends and of others in need • loving, but not demonstrative, not “huggy” • introverted sensation • emphasizes experience which events trigger (but not the events themselves) • i.e. musicians, artists • introverted intuition • concerned with possibilities (not the present reality)
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