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Lecture 4

Lecture 4.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB30H3
Professor
Connie Boudens

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PSYB30 – Lecture 4 Purple Text – Prof’s Speech PersonalityAssessment The process of evaluating individual differences through tests, interviews, and observations - Involves Systematic, standardized procedures (so that we can figure out if someone is above or below average for a trait) for observing, measuring, and recording behaviours and personality features. What makes a good personality test? Reliability across: Time Items (questions)  Measured using Chronbach’s alpha: >0.7, at least a score of 0.8 to be reliable  A lot of the time, asking many questions, but testing the same thing Raters  Interrater reliability - Reliability means the test will give the same results no matter how many times tested and no matter how many different ways tested - Validity Construct – test is aligned with construct it is designed to measure  Personality can’t be measured directly, we have to infer Face – does the test have questions that look like what you are trying to measure  i.e. a test of depression should ask questions of mood, appetite, etc. Criterion – predictive validity - Validity concerns making sure the test measures what it reports to measure Of special concern in test development: Convergent validity – how much do scores on your measure converge with scores on an already established measure Discriminant validity Types of PersonalityAssessment Dream analysis Interviews Observation Objective Tests MMPI MBTI NEO - PI (r) Projective Tests Sentence completion Rorschach Inkblot Test ThematicApperception Test Dream Analysis Associated with Psychodynamic approach Freud thought that Dreams represented the unconscious desires of the dreamer and that dreams happen without the person’s conscious intervention o Dreams are the road to the unconscious o Freud used dream analysis in treating patients o Believes that the ego takes a source of trouble and turns it into something else in a dream (manifest content)  To reduce anxiety, the ego disguises the true (latent) content of dreams using symbols (manifest content). Manifest content is analyzed to discover repressed feelings Interviews Involves Face-to-face meeting to get information about someone’s personality, current psychological state, personal history, etc. - Can be done in the course of research or counseling - Types of interviews: Unstructured – like a conversation Structured – interviewer has a plan and a set of questions they want answered Semi-structured – interviewer has questions to ask, asks follow-up questions based on the person’s response and then brings the focus back by asking their next planned question Potential biases Confirmation Bias – making an influence at the outset and asking questions to confirm it o Going in the direction to confirm what you already think Halo effect – used to refer to very attractive people; we assume they are good o Generalizations based on predominant features; which may be unrelated to personality Social desirability – when one gives answers that they think are the most socially acceptable o Faking good (pretending to be better than you are), dissimulation, faking bad (pretending to be tougher or meaner than you are) Observation Assessing behaviour through Direct surveillance Can be structured, or relatively unstructured Selecting observers Professional personality assessors  Advantage – they will be able to interpret behaviours professionally  Disadvantage – won’t have access to person during private times; they don’t know the person they are observing in different contexts People who actually know the target person  i.e. parent of child  often in a better position to observe the target’s natural behaviour in a variety of contexts  may be biased because of their relation to the target - observations can be done in an naturalistic or artificial manner or a combination of the two Naturalistic vs.Artificial Observation - naturalistic – observe events that occur in normal course of lives of participants (in natural environment) - artificial settings/environments – disadvantages: effects the way a person behaves because they know they are being watched o advantages: controlling conditions and eliciting relevant behaviour Objective Personality Measures Involve standard set of questions or statements – same for everyone Responses compared to established norms From responses, develop a picture called a ‘personality profile’ – profile for the overall person Possible response options: T/F or Y/N Dimensional scale – i.e. 1-5 or 1-9 Visual analog – has graphic indicators on a scale Adjective checklist Terminology Administration – the act of giving someone a test Test, scale, measure, or instrument – (used interchangeably) collection of questions intended to asses an aspect of personality Item – individual question on a scale Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 ND Edition One of the most widely used personality tests Originally published in 1943 to measure of psychopathology Norms based on profiles of normal people and psychiatric patients o items were chosen based on ability to discriminate between clinical groups and controls, people with psychological disorders and those without - the MMPI has been used for many predictive purposes from personal selection to marriage suitability 10 scales that result in a profile that integrates these clinical dimension of pathology and personality: Hypochondriasis, Depression, Hysteria, Psychopathic Deviate, Masculinity- Femininity, Paranoia, Psychasthenia, Schizophrenia, Hypomania, and Social Introversion - people answer questions that pertain to these scales Sample MMPI-2 Inte
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