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Personality Notes.docx

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Marc Fournier

Chapter 6 The Continuity of Traits  Psychologists expect personality trait scales to show high test-retest reliability in the short run Two Kinds of Continuity  Absolute continuity o Caspi defines it as “constancy in the quantity or amount of an attribute over time” o Usually applied in group averages; not on a single individual  Differential Continuity o “the consistency of individual differences within a sample of individuals differences within a sample of individuals over time, to the retention of an individual’s relative placement in a group” o A matter of individuals’ relative standing to one another on a given dimension o Low differential continuity: people’s relative positions on the given dimension change unpredictably over time.  suggests that people change relative to one another over time on a given dimension but does not tell us in what direction people change  Absolute continuity refers to the consistency of the average score on a given trait over time while differential continuity refers to the stability of individual differences in scores. Childhood Precursors: From Temperament to Traits  Thomas, Chess, and Birch (1970): o Easy babies: consistently positive mood, low-to-moderate intensity of emotional reactions, regular sleeping and eating o Difficult babies: consistently negative moods, intense emotional reactions, irregular sleeping and eating o Slow-to-warm-up babies: combination of the two previous forms, relatively negative moods, low intensity of emotional reactions, tend to withdraw from ne events at first but then approach them later  Rothbart (1986): o Six temperament dimensions observed in infants in the first year of life: Activity level, smiling and laughter, fearfulness, distress to limitations, “soothability”, and vocal activity o Effortful Control: the child’s active and voluntary capacity to withhold a dominant response in order to enact a subordinate response given situational demands  Jerome Kagan (1989): o Behavioural inhibition: extremely inhibited young children show great timidity in new events and people The Logic of Twin and Adoption Studies  Heritability quotient: A heritability quotient estimates the proportion of variability in a given characteristic that can be attributed to genetic differences between people Nonshared Environment  Rowe (1999) six categories of nonshared family effects: o Perinatal trauma: injuries/damage sustained by the fetus before birth o Accidentlal events: chance happenings and lucky breaks (physical injuries, winning raffle prize) o Family constellation: birth order and birth spacing between siblings o Sibling mutual interaction: forming alliances of varios sorts, competing and cooperating, adopting a wide range of social roles o Unequal parental treatment o Influences outside the family: teachers, peers How Genes shape Environemtns:  Scarr and McCartney: o Evocative influence: people respond to a child according to his or her genotype o Passive influence: the child’s biological parents provide an envinronment for the child that is compatible with their own genotypes (parents who like to read buy more books) o Active influence: direct selection of and search for environments that fit one’s genotype (athletic girl joining the softball team)  Boyce and Ellis: Stress reactivity Patterns of Traits over time  Block; two central dimensions of personality that organize many different apects of human functioning: o Ego control: the extent to which a person typically modifies the expression of impulses o Ego resiliency: the capacity to modify one’s typical level of ego control in either direction to adapt to the demands of a given situation Chapter 7 The Psychoanalytic View  Freud: Psychoanalysis o Determinism: forces over which we have little control, determine all human behaviour and experience o Drive: these powerful forces exist within us o Conflict: the forces that determine all our behaviour and experience are in perpetual conflict with one another, which causes us anxiety o Unconscious: the most important determinants of an d conflicts in our lives are outside of our consciousness Repression and Repressors  Hansen and Hansen o “the architecture of repression”  George Bonanno o In periods of extreme stress, repressive coping styles can lead to resilience (the ability to overcome difficult obstacles in life and to thrive amidst adversity) The Ego’s Defenses  Id: instinctual impulses of sex and aggression and their derivative wishes, fantasies, and inclinations o Provides all the instinctual energy for mental life o Knows no inhibitions; obeys no logical or moral constraints o Completely out of touch with the outside world of reality o Pleasure principle: pleasure derives from the reduction of tension in the immediate gratification of impulses  Ego: works to mediate between the blind demands of the id and the constraints imposed by logic and the external world o Reality principle: enables to suspend immediate instinctual gratification until either an appropriate object or environmental condition arises that will satisfy the instinct  Superego: tells the person what they should or should not be doing The Humanistic View  Carl Roger’s Theory o Client-centered therapy o Phenonmenal field: the entire panorama of a person’s experience, the person’s subjective apprehension of reality o Fully functioning person: person able to fulfill their potential  Organismic valuing process  Unconditional positive regard: they have been loved and accepted by others in an uncritical and noncontingent manner  Abraham Maslow o Self-actualization: same view as Roger’s that humans strive to actualize their inner potential o 4 other kinds of needs forming a hierarchy from bottom to top:  Physiological needs  Safety needs  Belongingness and love  Esteem needs  Needs for self-actualization o Higher needs cannot be addressed until the lower needs are satisfied o Peak experiences: wonderful moments of happiness, ecstasy, transcendence o B-cognitions The Diversity View  Henry Murray’s theory of needs: human lives must always be understood in the context of time; people live both in response to the past and in anticipation of the future  Press: a tendency in the environment to facilitate or obstruct the expression of a need  When a particular need repeatedly interacts with a particular press over an extended period of time, you have a thema Intimacy Motivation  A recurrent preference for experiences of warm, close, and communicative interaction with others  Affiliation motive: the desire to establish, maintain, or restore positive-affect relations with others  Both are positively correlated with each other  Intimacy motive appears to emphasize the qualities of being in a warm and close relationship, whereas the affiliation motive emphasizes doing or striving to achieve relati
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