Class Notes (837,023)
Canada (510,044)
Psychology (7,785)
PSYB30H3 (526)
Lecture 8

PSYB30H3 Lecture 8: PSYB30 LEC 8 - CHAP 13

4 Pages
Unlock Document

Lisa Fiksenbaum

PSYB30 LEC 8 Chapter 13: Emotion and Personality ● Emotions ○ Has 3 components: ■ Emotions have distinct subjective feelings, or affects, associated with them ■ Emotions accompanied by bodily changes → nervous system ● Changes in breathing, heart rate, muscle tension, face/bodily expressions ■ Emotions accompanied by distinct action tendencies → increases in probabilities of certain behaviours ● Action tendency (activity) associated w/ fear = fight or flight ○ Ppl differ from e/o in their emotional reactions ○ Charles Darwin ■ Functional analysis of emotions and emotional expressions ■ Focuses on “why” of the emotions/expressions ■ Whether they increase fitness of individuals ■ Concluded emotional expressions communicate info from one animal to other about what’s likely to happen Issues in Emotion Research → Emotional States Versus Emotional Traits ● Emotional states = transitory ○ Depend on more on the situation a person is in than the specific person ○ States have a specific cause -- >that cause originates outside of the person (typically) ● Emotions as traits ○ Often characterize ppl by stating what emotions they frequently express ○ Consistencies in a person’s emotional life → Categorical vs Dimensional Approach to Emotion ● Categorical approach → those who think that primary emotions are the key ○ Anger, joy, anxiety, sadness ○ Ekman ■ requires that a primary emotion have a distinct facial expression that is recognized across cultures ○ Izard ■ Primary emotions distinguished by their unique motivational properties ■ Emotions guide behaviours by motivating a person to take specific adaptive actions ○ Relies on conceptual distinctions among emotions ● Dimensional approach → researchers collect data by having subjects rate themselves on variety of emotions ○ Use factor analysis to identify basic dimensions underlying the ratings ○ Ppl categorize emotion using 2 primary dimensions ■ How pleasant/unpleasant the emotion is ■ How high/low on arousal the emotion is ○ How ppl experience their emotions Content vs Style of Emotional Life ● Content → specific kind of emotion that person experiences ○ Example: saying someone is cheerful ● Style → way in which an emotion is experienced ○ Example : to say that a person’s emotions change frequently → Content of Emotional Life ● Typical emotions person is likely to experience over time ● Pleasant emotions ○ Major pleasant disposition = happiness -- >associated feelings of being satisfied w/ life ○ Scientists started study on happiness (subjective well being) in mid-70s ○ Happiness tends to be measured in self-report measures → subjective ■ Ppl who score high on social desirability also score high on seld-reported happiness scales ○ Two components : life satisfaction and hedonistic balance ○ Part of being happy is to have positive illusions about the self ● Reciprocal causality → causality can flow in both directions ● Costa and McCrae ○ Proposed personality might have something to do w. Disposing certain ppl to be happy ○ Used existing info at the time to theorize that 2 personality traits that influence happiness = extraversion and neuroticism ■ Having high extraversion and low neuroticism may contribute much more to happiness than demographic characteristics ○ Across several studies the best predictor of responsiveness to (+) mood induction = extraversion ■ Best predictor of responsiveness to (-) mood induction = neuroticism ● Unpleasant Emotions ○ Trait anxiety and Neuroticism ■ Ppl who exhibit neuroticism are vulnerable to (-) emotions ■ Individuals high on neuroticism tend to overreact to unpleasant events ● Take longer to return to normal state after being upset ● Frequently experience episodes of irritation ○ Eysenck’s Biological Theory ■ Argues that neuroticism has a biological basis ● Due primarily to a tendency of the limbic system in the brain to become easily activated ● Limbic system → responsible for emotion and fight/flight reaction
More Less

Related notes for PSYB30H3

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.