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PSYB30 Lecture summaries.docx

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Marc A Fournier

Lecture Summaries Lec 7 McClelland’s Definition of a Motive Definition of a Motive  A motive is a recurrent preference for a certain experience that guides one’s actions in the direction of encountering that experience o Motives are not conscious intentions one states to others because some motives are implicit and generate spontaneous behaviour that satisfies that motive irrespective of your awareness o Motives are not traits because traits predict trends in behaviour while motives ask the question of..Why a person engages in that behaviour? (e.g. conscientiousness predicts that you will do your work while n Ach accounts for why you do your work) Thematic Apperception Test  Motives can be assessed through the Thematic Apperception Test  The TAT is a projective personality test in that the person projects their motives, needs, and desires onto an ambiguous image. The TAT has a reliable scoring system that can tap into the needs, press, and thema. o The scoring system is made through asking participants to complete a battery of tests to which one group is subject to a motive-arousing condition based on what they are told. o After completion of the tests, both participant groups are asked to write a sotry. The stories are looked at for themes relating to the particular motive aroused. Those themes are used as the basis to which subsequent stories given by a new set of participants are scored on.  The role of the psychologist o Denote  The protagonist of the story because they will be the character to which the participant identifies with  What the protagonist strives for in each story  Environment/press (alpha – objective environment told in the story or beta – protagonist’s perceptions of the environment); indicates how the participant views the world to be  The outcome of the story (pay attn to the number of positive to negative outcomes)  Look for particular need-press combinations which represent a thema  Sentiments and interest; reflects the participants perceptions of the environment and significant people in their lives  Criticisms o Poor criterion validity (doesn’t not predict behaviour that is consistent with the motive in the future or in the present) o Poor convergent validity (however, it assess implicit motives; all other self-report questionnaires for motives tap a different construct) o Poor reliability (however; when participants are told that they can use similar stories across multiple cards, they tend to show a specific motive that is reliably assessed. Trait x Motive Interactions (Channelling Hypothesis)  Although needs drive us to engage in behaviour in pursuit of need satisfaction, traits channel the need to certain behaviours.For the extravert, the need for intimacy will be channelled towards engaging in activites to which they can form close relationships (speed-dating). The introvert on the other hand will focus their efforts on the relationships they have in the present as a source for need satisfaction (family).  Winter, John, Stewart (1998) o Introverts who were high in the n Aff tended to do less volunteer work in the community, take multiple roles, and focused more on their immediate family than introverts low on n Aff. Their efforts to focus on the family backfired in that introverts high in n Aff had higher instances of marital dissatisfaction and divorce rates than those low in that need. o In contrast, extraverts high in n Aff tended to do more volunteer work, adopt multiple roles, and focused more on attaining positive affect relationships in society. Their efforts to focus on the society led to significant differences in marital dissatisfaction but no significant differences in divorce rates between extraverts high in n Aff compared to those low in n Aff Lec 8 Humanism Humanistic Psychology  Philosophy of human beings: Humans are inherently good. Human beings have the ability to reach their potential of innate goodness through acknowledging one’s experiences. Human beings have a creative nature as well. Rogers Fully Functioning Person  Human beings have the fundamental tendency to strive towards fulfilling one’s potential. The environment can either facilitate or mitigate this tendency towards self-actualization.  Buried within us is a organismic value process that is reflected through our intuitive judgment. In order to become a fully functioning person, we must trust ourselves and our organismic value process.  Mature personality development involves acknowledge every experience that is encountered without the need to distort it via defences. The fully functioning person is able to incorporate especially those experiences that are growth- promoting. Furthermore, the idnvidiual can live in the moment by accepting each experience.  The critical ingredient that sets the stage for mature personality development is the satisfaction of the need for positive regard. A child must receive unconditional positive regard from their parents. Unfortunately, parents and teachers tend to place conditions of worth, leading one to accept certain aspects of the self while reject others.  Psychotherapy: o Therapist acknowledges the client’s aspects in a noncritical way; however, the client must learn to accept those experiences that are part of who they are but have been suppressed because of the conditions of worth placed on them. o Therapist is able to convey empathy and a sense of understanding through the speech act of reflection. It helps not only to convey understanding but to also let the client know that the therapist values their perspective. Maslow’s Self-Actualization  Hierarchy of needs: Like Rogers, Maslow believed that humans strive for self- actualization. However, Maslow believed that other needs take precedence before fulfilling one’s potential. What distinguishes those needs from the need for self- actualization is that those needs are drive-reducing while the need for self- actualization is drive-inducing. o Self-actualizers such as finding the truth about one’s self or realizing one’s creativity creates a peak experience as in when Michael Jordan was able to do basketball moves, fly in the air, and win 6 championships. Those experiences reflect one’s prime and one’s feeling of ecstasy and happiness. Self-Determination  Self-determination theory was the theory that united all aspects of humanistic psychology Self-Regulation  Extrinsic motivation serves to undermine a person’s interest in an activity because humans have an innate motivation that characterizes why the engage in activites that are novel and optimally challenging. Extrinsic motivation can be in the form of goal setting, surveillance, immediate feedback, monetary or other tangible rewards, and competition (e.g. school).  Deci’s Free-Choice Paradigm showed how the extent to which an activity does or doesn’t have an incetive attached to it determines whether the individual will engage in the activity when they have the choice o B45 moment: remember that natural reinforcers are the most powerful reinforcers that motivate one to engage in the behaviour again Basic Psychological Needs  Behaviours that are intrinsically motivating are only so because they satisfy the basic implicit needs that are found in all humans. These are the needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness. Once these needs are satisfied, they become linked to good psychological health because they are nutriments that are necessary (plant analogy).  The environment can contribute to facilitating or mitigating need satisfaction. By providing a moderate structure, support for creative self-expression, and involvement in the pursuit of one’s goal, a person’s needs can be satisfied. The best courses one takes in a university have allowed for the satisfaction of those needs because you did well in the course (competence), were able to make decisions pertaining to how to approach an assignment (autonomy), and was able to perceive the professor as an aid in understanding the material (relatedness).  Once you engage in a behaviour that leads to the satisfaction of that need, you will perceive that behaviour to be generated by you because you only undertook the behaviour out of interest and not due to other people such as parents and friends. The behaviour ultimately reflects who you are.  Although some behaviours (e.g. playing the piano) can be initially engaged in due to other people, eventually, the behaviour may undergo the process of internalization to which it will soon reflect who you are (authenticity). o In the context of piano lessons, the child may play the piano because of parental approval or to compete with siblings (external regulation); however, it may develop into playing the piano because you’d feel bad quitting after many years of playing (introjection), to playing piano because you value music as a form of art that is important in society (internalization), to playing the piano for the fun of it (integrated regulation) Needs Satisfaction & Subjective Well-Being  People tend to differ in the extent to which the behaviours engage in satisfy external or intrinsic motivations. Those w
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