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3 - Traits Part II Lecture Outline.docx

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Connie Boudens

Lecture 3: Traits Part II The Big Five +  Honesty-Humility  Some think that this should be its own category/trait  But others think that it is just part of the introverted component of agreeableness   to see if these other traits are to be considered in addition to the big 5… depends on empirical evidence: what types of questions we ask, how we analyze it and what we find etc  Intelligence  People against this they say that Conceptually it's like openness  If we add intelligence with other traits in factor analysis it Loads on conscientiousness  Where it falls depends on how we define it  Lots of ways to define intelligence – not everyone agrees  Curious and logical vs behaviourally – being good at problem solving  This will determine if it will line up with Openness or conscientiousness  Spiritual transcendence / religiosity  May be separate from Big 5  Sexuality  Attractiveness, sexual exclusivity, sexual restraint, sexual orientation etc  Overlap w/ Big 5 Is the Five Factor Model (FFM) Universal and independent of learning?  Invariant of culture  Artifact of development with WEIRD participants  most are undergrad students  Defined as Western, educated, industrialized, rich, democratic  Derived in English using lexical approach  Words in a language that describe a personality – these words are used as a starting point  Assumes other languages will have words for same ideas  Validated in over 50 countries  Indigenous measures get similar results except:  Indigenous approach: when you start with the new language afresh – find all the words that are traits in that language and then run factor analysis and find the main ones  Extraversion, agreeableness not always distinct  These things may not be important or … that they may be viewed differently within the culture  Concept of Openness varies  Defined differently in different cultures  Unique traits (ex. filial piety in China)?  More than 5 traits needed in some cultures  This is still an open question whether the big 5 are universal Reliability of FFM lower in less developed countries  Potential reasons:  Translations  Item relevance – if the society/culture does not do this … or it is not important for them so then when we ask them these questions … they would not be able to answer so well  Familiarity with test format  Representative samples FFM in Tsimane culture (Gerven, von Rueden, Massenkoff, Kaplan, & Lero Vie, 2012)  Used translated version of FFM  Factor analysis showed 2 factors  Combo off Extraversion and Agreeableness (prosociality?)  Industriousness Meta-analysis of the relationship btw Big 5 traits and leadership (Judge, Bono, Ilies, & Gerhardt, 2002)  Meta-analysis: technique for combining findings from studies  Extraversion most consistent correlate of leadership  followed by Contentiousness, Openness, and Neurotism (-)  Agreeableness had very low correlation with leadership Career/work  Personality testing often used in HR  Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) common measure of match between people and work  Follows work of Carl Jung Jung’s Psychological Types  introversion – extroversion  4 psychological functions o thinking – feeling o sensation – intuition   people had dominant and auxiliary functions  8 psychological types Introversion  Draws energy from within themselves  Focus more inner world of thought and ideas Extraversion  Draws energy from environment  Focus on people, things, outside self The Four Functions  Thinking and Feeling  ways of making decisions or judgments  thinking = using logic and reason (head)  feeling = emotions and personal values (heart)  Sensation and Intuition  ways of getting information about the world  sensation = get information through the 5 senses – e.g. face is red etc  will focus on details to tell you what to do  intuition = focused on big picture – a "sixth sense", rely on a feeling The eight psychological types • introverted thinking • interested in ideas • interested in inner reality • pays little attention to other people • attitude is introverted, dominant psychology function is thinking • introverted feeling • superficially reserved • sympathetic and understanding of close friends or of others in need • loving, not demonstrative • introverted sensation • emphasizing experience which events trigger (not the events themselves) • e.g. musicians and artists • very much interested in the experience • introverted intuition • concerned with possibilities (not the present reality) • in touch with the unconscious • extroverted thinking • interested in facts about objects external to the self • logical • represses emotions and feelings • n
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