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9 - Self determination theory.docx

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Connie Boudens

9 - Regulation and Motivation: Self-Determination Theory Why talk about motivation and how is it related to personality? - We want to know what drives people, and how people differ in this regard - Psychodynamic theories are essentially motivational o Talking about the different forces (esp the traditional Freudian theory and forces: sexual and aggressive) and how they work together to form aspects of personality - Different aspects: need for affiliation, need for power etc o Motives that are reliable in individual differences - Last week: Psychodynamic theory and how the different forces motivate behaviour - This week: The self-determination theory stems from the humanistic Tradition The Humanistic Tradition in Psychology - Reaction to reductionism of behaviourism and pessimism of psychodynamics o Psychodynamic: Looks at how to overcome the negative aspects of personality and the negative unconscious motives vs ego  Struggles a person works to overcome that exist in their dark id and subconscious o Behaviourist: personality consist of what you can actually see – and that is personality  Doesn’t address anything unconscious and intrapsychic at all  Just talks about what you can see and directly measure  How they respond to stimuli in environment – personality is developed by these responses and experiences - Humanist: looks at the forward and upwards trajectory of human beings and life in general o Is derived from psychodynamic and behaviourist views - View individual as active system with an inherent propensity for growth and the resolution of psychological inconsistencies o Active system: don’t look at the individual parts of a person but rather look at how the whole thing works together  The trait perspective looks at the individual traits and how they related to other traits  not a system view o Inherent propensity for growth: something that is a part of them that allows them to grow o Resolution of psychological inconsistencies: if there are any differences between the two things the person perceives – they are very motivated to resolve that inconsistency in some way  Cognitive dissonance: when you have thought and feeling that are inconsistent with each other and how you resolve that - Optimal functioning allows both increasing complexity and integration o More adaptable and more flexible o Acquire more intellectual and cognitive skills – to allow for more ways to understand things o But at the same time there is this aspect of integration Key Humanists - Abraham Maslow o The need level that you are at motivates your behaviour o Self-actualized – a person who has fulfilled their potential - Carl Rogers o Unconditional positive regard: therapist in client-centred approach uses this  Not accepting of behaviour always but still accepting of the person o Has humanistic characteristics to theory: Everyone has an actualizing tendencies but we need to figure out what is blocking them from that path and then try to remove them  what is keeping them from growing and self-actualizing o Contrasted with psychodynamic theory: just figuring out how to keep the negative impulses that are part of the id at bay or how to resolve them - Humanistic tradition: emphasizes responsibility, growth, increasing complexity o Also that this self-actualizing tendency is inherent and present in everyone  Actualizing tendency: motive to actualize growth and bring about positive change Self-determination theory – Deci and Ryan Three Fundamental Psychological Needs - Important for people in wide range of culture - Competence, Autonomy, Relatedness Competence - Feeling that you can reliably produce desired outcomes and/or avoid (-) ones - Requires: o Outcome expectations : Understanding of the relationship between a behaviour and its consequences o Efficacy expectations: Feeling capable of successfully engaging in the behaviour Autonomy - Feeling that one is acting in accord with sense of self and be the causal agent with respect to actions – you can cause things to happen - Sense of choosing, not feeling compelled or controlled - Not independence – can still be autonomous if have assimilated values of significant others - Internally vs Externally Imposed Control o Central issue in autonomy is the experience of freedom from pressure, regardless of who is imposing the pressure - Internally informational vs internally controlling regulation o Behavioural regulation from within is not necessarily adaptive o Regulating own behaviour  in a controlling fashion  Leads to tension and pressure to perform  Does not help autonomy or competence  in an informational fashion  allows freedom from pressure and the experience of choice  Feel autonomous for sure; but also feel competent if you keep doing it and get better at it Relatedness - The n
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