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Lecture 11

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Connie Boudens

PSYB30 – Lecture 11 Purple Text – Prof’s Speech Gender and Personality Large Gender Differences - In meta-analyses, the quality depends on the quality of other studies - The results of meta-analysis – viewed as results of one large study - Physical attributes - Occupational o Men – more technical jobs o Women – more people-oriented jobs - Certain types of knowledge o Men – technical, sports, electronic - Sexual behaviour o Men – masturbation, attitudes towards casual sex and number of partners in the course of a lifetime - Tender-mindedness (-) o Facet of agreeableness o Women score higher than men - Some types of aggression o Large difference between men and women in some types Medium Gender Differences - Aggression (peer, self, physical) o As measured by peers and self o Specifically physical aggression, as opposed to verbal aggression - Attitudes toward sex when in committed relationship o Men – more towards free love - Science knowledge - Affection (-) o Women show more affection - Agreeableness (-) o Women – a little higher in agreeableness - Conformity (-) o As measured by Asch paradigm o Short, medium, long line – which are the same length? - Emotional stability (-) o Women - higher - Desire for status, ambition in mate (-) o Women – greater desire - Desire for attractive mate o Men – greater desire Trivial Differences - SE (over 23) – self-esteem over the age of 23 o Men are higher in self-esteem before 23, evens out after 23 - Extraversion: specifically activity, gregariousness - Openness: idea generation - Occupations: idea-data dimension o Proportions of people who have generating idea side vs. data and numbers side - Guilt, pride, anger o Men are slightly more likely to experience - Knowledge (lit, bus, arts) o Very little difference between males and females Gender differences: The Big 5 (table 11.5) - Largest difference – neuroticism Aggression - Depends on type, measurement, situation - Types of aggression: physical, verbal, social - Types of measurement: projective tests, peer-report, self-report, physical report, observation - In general, males more physically and verbally aggressive - Girls: more relational and indirect aggression into adolescence o Relational aggression: rejecting people, talking behind backs - No difference when physically attacked, insulted, negatively evaluated - Males are more aggressive when frustrated Risk-Taking - Men consistently take more risks than women o i.e. in being part of experimental procedures, intellectual risks, risks pertaining to physical skill o more likely to take risks when it is not such a good idea - Varies with type of risky behaviour - Differences lessening between men and women over time Gender Differences? It Depends... - Empathy o Self-report measures of feelings indicate female advantage o Empathy accuracy experiments show few differences  It was thought that women feel greater empathy (self-report measures), but accurate measures show few differences - Emotions o Women thought to be more expression, research shows no difference o No physiological differences o SR emotions conform to gender role expectations  Female: sadness, depression  Male: pride, confidence, excitement o No single measure to measure emotion – difficult to make comparisons Anxiety - Self-report - Higher levels of anxiety were reported by women - Observational studies – don’t show a difference - Some studies: men more physiologically reactive to stress Helping and Leadership - Helping behaviour o Witnessed vs. private helping o Women are more helpful  But it depends if someone is watching – when someone is watching, men engaged in more helping behaviours, if they don’t know that someone is watching, helping behaviours are about the same o Communal vs. agentic helping  Women – communal help  Men – agentic/physical help - Leadership o Differences in effectiveness o Democratic vs. autocratic leadership  Women lead more democratically (want to know others’ opinions)  Men – more autocratic – make decisions for everyone  Different situations call for different leadership style o Leadership effectiveness Influencability - how easily influenced one is - Overall gender differences is small to medium - Females are somewhat more influenceable o Easier to get women to conform than men o Easier to change attitude o More easily swayed by conformity-to-peer pressure o Gender of experimenter matters  Females – more influenced by opposite-sex experimenter o Traditionally masculine stimuli Self-Esteem and Self-Confidence - Age – differences vary with age o Biggest gap between men and women – in adolescence and young adulthood o Older ages – difference is smaller - Overestimation and underestimation of chances of success o Some evidence that men overestimate success, women underestimate success What Causes Gender Differences? - Feminist theories: differences translated into value judgements of females as inferior to males - Table 11.9 Biological Factors - Differences innate and due to biological causes like hormones, genetics, and evolution o 25-38% genetic o Prenatal hormones o Monthly/daily fluctuations in hormone levels  Estrogen in women, androgen in men o Oxytocin release in females under stress  When women stress – their sympathetic nervous system releases more oxytocin (which promotes people to help others in distress) Biological Factors: Evolution - Gender differences in dating and mating strategies – largely focused on evolutionary theories
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