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Traits Part 2.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Connie Boudens

Traits Part 2 The Big Five +? Honesty-Humility?  Introverted component of agreeableness?  Empirical question – can this be answered using data? Does it overlap with the other personality traits? Intelligence?  Conceptually like openness  Loads on openness  Depends on how you define it o could be being curious, logical, etc (openness?) o could be problem solving ability (conscientiousness?) Spiritual transcendence / religiosity  Evidence suggest transcendence (understanding big picture)  may be separate from Big 5 Sexuality?  Attractiveness, exclusivity, restraint, orientation etc (see text for more)  Overlap w/ Big 5 Is the FFM Universal? Universal = invariant of culture Artifact of development with (this is an acronym) participants?  Most studies have been done using participants who are Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, and Democratic Derived in English using lexical approach – words in the language, describing personalit  Translation may be an option: translate it to one language then backtranslate to make sure it is useful and correct o Assumes other languages will have words for same ideas  Has been validated in over 50 countries Indigenous measures get similar results except:  Extraversion, agreeableness not always distinct  Openness varies o Defined differently in different cultures Unique traits (ex: filial piety in China)?  Filial piety = taking care of the elderly, continuing the family line, honoring your ancestors, etc More than 5 traits needed in some cultures Reliability of FFM lower in less developed countries Potential reasons:  Translations  Item relevance o Some of the concepts expressed may not be relevant – parties are not really available to the very poor  Familiarity with test format o Not knowing how to do the test would make it hard to get proper results  Representative samples FFM in Tsimane culture Hunting and farming culture, in Bolivia. Hasn’t been exposed to Western culture Used translated version of FFM (into Spanish) Factor analysis showed 2 factors  Combination of extraversion and agreeableness (prosociality?)  Industriousness Personality in Everyday Life Leadership roles Meta-analysis of the relationship btw Big 5 traits and leadership (Judge, Bono, Ilies, & Gerhardt, 2002)  Meta-analysis: technique for combining findings from studies. Involves finding all studies that have been done about a subject (published/non-published) and treating them as if they have come from one study. Gives many participants. This allows for a big picture impression of a topic.  Extraversion most consistent correlate of leadership  followed by conscientiousness, openness, and neuroticism (-) (The less neurotic people are, the more leader-like they are)  Agreeableness had very low correlation with leadership This article provides a qualitative review of the trait perspective in leadership research, followed by a meta-analysis. The authors used the five-factor model as an organizing framework and meta-analyzed 222 correlations from 73 samples. Overall, the correlations with leadership were Neuroticism .24, Extraversion .31, Openness to Experience .24, Agreeableness .08, and Conscientiousness .28. Results indicated that the relations of Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, and Conscientiousness with leadership generalized in that more than 90% of the individual correlations were greater than 0. Extraversion was the most consistent correlate of leadership across study settings and leadership criteria (leader emergence and leadership effectiveness). Overall, the five-factor model had a multiple correlation of .48 with leadership, indicating strong support for the leader trait perspective when traits are organized according to the five-factor model. Career / Work Personality testing often used in HR Myers-Briggs Type Indicator common measure to match btw people and work  Helps people in being able to work with others that may not have same personality types Follows work of Carl Jung Jung’s Personality Types Believed that there were two ways to look at each other: introversion – extroversion  Introversion o Draws energy from within o Focus on inner world of thought, ideas  Extroversion o Draws energy from environment o Focus on people, things outside self 4 psychological functions thinking – feeling  ways of making decisions, judgments o T: logic, reason, principles o F: emotions, personal values sensation – intuition  ways of getting information info about world o S: through senses, focus on details o iN: through “sixth sense”, focus on big picture dominant function & auxiliary function  Dominant functions were those that people used more often. This dominant function was supported by an auxiliary (2nd) function, tertiary (3rd) function, and inferior (4th) function. The dominant function actually ended up overshadowing the other functions in terms of defining personality 8 psychological types  introverted thinking o interested in ideas o interested in inner reality o pays little attention to other people  introverted feeling o superficially reserved o sympathetic and understanding of close friends or of others in need o loving, but not demonstrative – not going to tackle you with hugs  introverted sensation o emphasizes experience which e
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