Chapter 8: Intra-Psychic Foundations of Personality
Why should we study Freud?
We reference stuff like Freudian slips during the exam.
He was way ahead of his time with theories like, “the unconscious mind”.
Most of the stuff Freud talks about is subconscious desires within the person. He proposed that human
existence is a constant struggle between a person’s life and death.
Eros: The lift instinct
Thanatos: The death instinct
Structure and Dynamics of the Psyche
1. The Id: Original and most primitive desires
2. Ego: Supresses the Id’s crazy desires, and thinks of the situation realistically.
3. Super Ego: Internalization of societal values.
Divisions of the mind in the topographic model are the conscious [top; things you’re able to recall
easily], the preconscious [middle; stuff that you can bring into your mind if you try] and the unconscious
[bottom; things you can’t access at all].
Repression: Impulse from ever reaching consciousness. Ex) Not stealing peoples food in public
when you’re hungry.
Suppression: Pushing an impulse down. Ex) resisting the urge to steal something when no one’s
Sublimation: Transforming id impulses to more acceptable ones. Ex) Channel your emotions in a
Projection: ascribing undesirable impulses unto others. Ex) Get angry at someone who doesn’t
care about you.
Rationalization: Giving a rational explanation for your behaviour. Ex) I didn’t really want that
thing anyway, or I meant to do that kind of thing.
Intellectualization: uncoupling thought and feeling. Ex) Make sense of the situation in order to
make yourself feel better.
Undoing: Attempts to nullify the thought from your mind in general.
Reaction formation: Converting an unacceptable impulse into its opposite. Ex) Run into your ex
with their new fling, and you pretend to act like the situation is good. Stages of Psychosexual Development; According to Freud
-Receptive: Too trusting, not competent, dependant
-Aggressive: Envious and Exploitative
-Retentive: Obstinacy, Orderliness, Rigidity, Frugality
-Expulsive: Emotional outbursts, disorganization, generosity, rebelliousness.
-Males: Develop an Oedipus complex that causes them to sexually possess their mother, and
they want to murder the father. They become afraid that the father is going to castrate them for
doing this. You continue this until you are able to grow out of this and put the idea of possessing
your mother out of your head.
-Females: Women develop penis envy and live the rest of their lives wanting to be men.
Problems with these stages
Freud: No significant development in Id impulses of erogenous zone.
Current thinking: Important time, in physical cognitive, social and emotional development.
He only looked at people who possessed psychological illnesses and generalized them to the
Inadequate Proof and Gender Differences:
His Oedipal complex is way too specific and som