Chapter 10: Cognitive Foundations of Personality
Focuses on differences in information processing; specifically Cognition.
Cognition [There are three levels]:
Awareness and thinking
Specific mental acts: perceiving, interpreting, remembering, believing, and anticipating, etc.
Perception: Process of imposing order on information received by our sense organs.
Field Independence: People, who are able to focus while there is noise occurring, are field
Field Dependence: Whereas the opposite is the case for those who are field dependant. Can be
tested through methods mentioned below.
They are able to be separated by majors: field Independence: Natural sciences, math, and
engineering; field dependant: social science, and education.
They found out field dependant people rely on social cues, and are oriented towards other
people. Whereas field independent people function with more autonomy and are more
detached from others.
Embedded Figures Test (EFT): Images embedded into a picture, you have to be able to pick
out the pictures within the picture. [Find the squirrel in the sky, elephant with the horse
Rod and Frame Test (RFT): The room is darkened and the person looks at the rods with
frames placed around it [awkwardly]. You have a knob that moves the rod into a position
where it’s straight up and down. Ex) People studied the differences between Chinese people
and Europeans; the Chinese people had a more difficult time because they kept concerned
themselves with the box.
Low pain tolerance has a nervous system that amplifies or augments the subjective impact
sensory input. Those who can tolerate pain well have a nervous system that reduces the effects.
Reducers show smaller responses at the neurological level to noise/light etc.
Reducers seek strong stronger stimulation, drink more coffee, smoke more, and get bored.
Reducers tend to start smoking at an earlier age, and engage in minor delinquencies.
Interpretation: Process of making sense of, or explaining, events in the world